Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Essay, Research Paper


JiKang & # 8217 ; s Naturalistic Theory and Criticism of Art

In China, from the antediluvian times, a synthesis of all signifiers of art that includes poesy, vocal, and dance has been called & # 8220 ; music & # 8221 ; . Harmonizing to the standard Confucianist point of view on music, this synthesis was dubbed & # 8220 ; politeness-music. & # 8221 ; The chief feature of Confucianist music theory lies in its accent on music as a political instrument. Confucianists ordered society harmonizing to hierarchcal differentiations and at the same time attempted to harmonise differentiated categories through music. Furthermore, by linking the footing of its music theory with the order of the existence, it helped to warrant the Confucian constitution. It was JiKang, a Daoist mind of the Wei-Jing epoch, who was in direct resistance to the Confucianist music theory. By stressing that music has in it neither grief nor joy, JiKang criticized Confucinaists by baring the implicit in political deduction of Confucianist governing order and its music theory. Harmonizing to JiKang, there must be a clear differentiation between subjective value system of worlds and nonsubjective factual universe of nature. Jikang, emphasizing nature & # 8217 ; s independency from human values, supported the thought that human existences have no right to regulate nature within their value system. Rather, human existences are a portion of nature and they can experience supreme joy merely when they obtain the features of nature. In this paper, concentrating on some points related to Jikang & # 8217 ; s unfavorable judgment, the writer examines the formative procedure of Confucianist music theory that purports to claim that music has in it heartache and joy. Jikang & # 8217 ; s critical undertaking proceedes by retrieving the significance of the being of music. Alternatively of old music theory that emphasized the societal public-service corporation of music, JiKang & # 8217 ; s lament unfavorable judgment and his ain new music theory helps restore the appropriate place of art in its original sense. The deduction of this reinstitution of music in its ideal province is that music is now taken to claim its ain land and nature, no longer subordinated to human society and emotions. In this respect, music comes to hold its ain purposive value, and no longer used as a agency of regulating and control. To sum up, in this paper, via the analysis of Ji-Kang & # 8217 ; s theory that music has in it neither grief nor joy, Jikang & # 8217 ; s unfavorable judgment of the bing Confucianst music theory which is said to subordinate aesthetic consciousness to ethical consciousness helps uncover the true significance of art and the aesthetic consciousness of naturalism.

I. A thesis of Confuciansim on & # 8220 ; LiYue & # 8221 ; ( rites and music )

The signifier of control of one societal category over other categories is double. One half of this double signifier is a control by coercive power of the province. The other is a signifier of leading that is manifested by such conventional establishments as instruction, faith, and the imposts. In order to set up a stable commanding power of one societal category over other categories, it is thought preferred to make a consensus instead than to utilize force. Control based on consensus is executable through voluntary understanding. If those ruled steadfastly believe that the involvements of the governing category reflect the overall involvements of societal members of a state, and that societal justness is fulfilled by the opinion category, this will increase the concerted inclination between the opinion and the ruled. A deep trust in the legitimacy of the opinion category & # 8217 ; power will internalise this as a sort of moral consciousness. The moral consciousness will demand animal positivity merely every bit much as sound opinion. Our sense has an property of imputing some values to things that are the objects of our silent purpose. Sense forms one & # 8217 ; s ain belief system and desire. Henceforth, it is of import to hold the animal motive through which the aim of ground is identified, morally, with bodily desire.

In this context, Confucianism seizes upon the a signifier of art which affects a individual & # 8217 ; s psychological province. Such an art & # 8217 ; s ethical strength surpasses attempts to rouse ground through mere prophesying for persuasion. Ancient Confucians understood and recognized this point. In this context, we can see why Confucius one time said that & # 8220 ; one who knows it ( the manner ) is non the equal of one who loves it, and one who loves it is non the equal of one who takes joy in it. & # 8221 ; ( Analects, Book Six ) Joy draws on the pleasance via centripetal variety meats. If one receives & # 8220 ; Dao & # 8221 ; as joy through centripetal variety meats, the pleasance coming from physiological maps can no longer run counter to & # 8220 ; Dao, & # 8221 ; the object of reasoned idea. If a animal system associated with the physiological map of centripetal variety meats is in harmoniousness with Dao wholly, that harmoniousness will go a concrete force that commits us to Dao & # 8217 ; s ideals and aims.

In order to legalize the position quo governing power and pull internalized obeisance, as a agency of calming, human existences began to utilize art before using ethical norms outright. In China, & # 8220 ; yue & # 8221 ; appeared prior to & # 8220 ; li. & # 8221 ; In antediluvian times, irrespective of whether they are western or oriental, the signifier of art encompassed poesy, vocals, and dance. In ancient China, this uniform comprehensive signifier is called & # 8220 ; yue & # 8221 ; ( music ) . During the pre-Qin epoch, the efficaciousness of the political relations of & # 8220 ; yue & # 8221 ; ( music ) was brought into high alleviation. Confucianists since Gongzi normally referred to & # 8220 ; yue & # 8221 ; as & # 8220 ; shishuliyue & # 8221 ; ( poesy, books, rites, and music ) and regarded it as a publically recognized canon. But literate peoples during the period runing from the Warring States period to the Wei-Jin epoch distinguished between doctrine and art, and finally they subdivided art itself into assorted genres.

Jikang & # 8217 ; s distinction of the voice of nature from human voices was made possible by the anterior distinction of poesy from music. Jikang emphasized the natural character of the sound of music and simultaneoulsy criticized the theoretical premises on which the traditional societal map of music and art was based. Here I will foremost qualify the chronological procedure of the formation of the Confucian music theory runing from the pre-Qin epoch to the epoch when the Book of Rites, with a subdivision on & # 8220 ; musical instruments, & # 8221 ; foremost appeared. Then I will concretely depict and analyse the definining features of the Confucian claim that & # 8220 ; music has in it heartache and joy & # 8221 ; .

China & # 8217 ; s perspectives on music were non concretly described prior to Xunzi & # 8217 ; s Hagiographas on music. Merely some fragmental descriptions of it appear in some literature such as the Chunqiu ( The Spring and Autumn Annals ) . Here I will research some positions on music pertaining to Jikang & # 8217 ; s critical attitudes toward Confucianist theory on music. In making so, for the Xianjin epoch, I will establish my statement on the Spring and Autumn Annals ( Chunqiu ) , the Tales of the States ( Guoyu ) , and the Book of Documents ( Shujing ) . I will besides utilize the Analects ( Lunyu ) , since it correlates & # 8220 ; liyue & # 8221 ; with an waking up of internal emotions, and Xunzi & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Treatise on Music & # 8221 ; ( Yuelun ) , which developed Gongzi & # 8217 ; s music theory. The Book of Rites, and in peculiar the & # 8220 ; Book of Music & # 8221 ; ( Yuezhi ) subdivision, will besides be a chief beginning of analysis.

I-A. Shamanist map of pre-Qin epoch music

During the Western Zhou epoch, the Rites of the Zhou Dynasty ( Zhouli ) provided a criterion for rulership. And it was widely read, being used as a footing for the handling of political personal businesss by feudal Godheads every bit good as cardinal dynastic male monarchs. It was besides the criterion for finding right from incorrect, therefore playing a cardinal function in reconstructing order, and even in finding the fate of the dynasty. In this period, it was informed to a great extent by kin patterns and its chief ordinances were profoundly embued with spiritual concerns. Therefore, in this period, people regarded natural Gods and hereditary liquors as & # 8220 ; Heaven & # 8221 ; ( Tian, or & # 8220 ; Heavenly God & # 8221 ; ) , and followed natural rules as the & # 8220 ; Way of the Heaven & # 8221 ; ( Tiandao ) . They regarded the power of Heaven over human existences as taking the signifier of a & # 8220 ; Heavenly commandment & # 8221 ; ( Tianming ) , and the swayer controlled his topics in conformity with godly power. Society was agricultural, emphasized the observation of natural phenomena, and regarded this as an indicant of godly Providence finding the autumn and rise of all the plants of human existences. This line of idea that exemplifies the primacy of Heaven over human existences, and as such formed the foundation of the Confucianist political idea. As a component of this political organic structure, ancient music was closely related to agribusiness, and alterations of the agricultural calendar were said to hold engendered alterations in music. Furthermore, folk songs were collected and reperformed before the swayer in order to track public sentiment. Music ( Yue ) was besides employed as a manner of exhibiting the emperor & # 8217 ; s success symbolically. Along with dance, music was made a needed topic for wining princes. This was based on the belief that & # 8220 ; yue & # 8221 ; encompassed poesy, vocals, and dance, that it was a valid step to read the public sentiment, and moreover that and vocalizing and dance could exercise incantatory power in warfare.

Due to this, the responsibility of music functionaries was really of import politically. Their responsibilities included the measuring of climatic alterations ( Book of pre-Han Dynasty, Book 21 ) , the appraisal of an enemy & # 8217 ; s morale in warfare ( Spring and Autumn Annals, Ranggong 18 ) , the instruction of the progeny of the nobility ( Book of Documents, Shundian ch. ) , measuring the justness of specific policies, garnering samples of public sentiment and conveying it to the emperor, the composing of musical tonss lauding the self-respect of the swayer, and even the industry of musical instruments ( Tales of the States, Guoyu ) .

Certain music functionaries, called both & # 8220 ; gu & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; shi & # 8221 ; therefore helped to detect the Way of Heaven and widen its authorizations. While conglomerating scientific information via nonsubjective observations of natural phenomena, these music functionaries analogized these phenomena ( a subjective procedure ) to switch in society, so utilizing these analogies to foretell important events.

For the interest of exemplifying the maps that music served more concretely, the undermentioned points are in order.

In 555 B.C. , the Spring and Autumn Annals ( Ranggong 18 ) provinces: & # 8220 ; Shiguang blew the flute and predicted its state & # 8217 ; s loss in warfare. The people of Jing dynasty were told that Chu Dynasty would occupy in the forseeable hereafter. At this clip, Shiguang said: & # 8216 ; They could non ache us. I blew the northern melodies via this luguan, and besides southern melodies. But southern melodies were missing in vivacity and they were deceasing sounds. Chu Dynasty would contend us but ne’er prevail over us. & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ;

In order to understand this historical folklore, some cognition of the scientific discipline and civilisation of the clip is required. Harmonizing to Needham, at the clip people believed that each military ground forces had its ain unique & # 8220 ; chi, & # 8221 ; and this chi hovered over the caputs of soldiers as sort of energy field. As an effort to step and measure the chi of an full ground forces, music functionaries were required to blow speically-made luguan, therefore exercizing particular incancatory music. When the produced sound of this fluke was muffled and ill-defined, it was believed that it showed the chi of the soldiers to be uncomplete and unstable, which in bend meant great losingss or licking.

There was besides a belief that the oft-found incantatory power of pitch-pipes, dance, and bell could organize a qi energy field, and even that a certain province of head could be transmitted via instruments. This was based on a simplistic kind of apprehension of the nature of chi. In fact, this signifier of incantatory belief in music ( Yue ) was used as a important criterion for opinion. Harmonizing to Needham, the blowing of pitch-pipes signified the beginning of a military run for an ground forces, and the preparedness of its antagonist to assail. In maintaining with the mantic music of prestidigitators, they were besides used to publish the bid to bear down or retreat. Thus, 10s of 1000s of solidiers & # 8217 ; lives depend on the content of prestidigitators & # 8217 ; music.

This belief in the supernatural power of thaumaturgy and conjuration, nevertheless, grew weak and finally collapsed along with the prostration of the opinion system that was based on rites or rites. The rise and autumn of a state did non pull on the commandment of Heaven any longer, and instead the power struggles among human existences for hegemony in existent state of affairss were perceived to be the determiner of the destinty of a state. This new perceptual experience gained currency among intellectuals and opinion categories and, as a consequence, they no longer sanctified the bing Li ( rites ) and yue ( music ) . Following this new position, swayers so demanded a new reading of the bing Yue ( music ) and insisted upon altering its signifier. As a effect, a new opinion category began to work the symbolic image of the emperor and therefore made free usage of all the imperial rubrics and & # 8220 ; wuyue & # 8221 ; ( soldierly music )

I-B. Confucius & # 8217 ; thesis on music as a vehicle of political virtuousness.

Confucius himself respected the political relations and civilization of the Zhou dynasty. He besides worshipped the virtuousnesss of the Yao-Shun epoch, therefore he took a instead reactionist attitude toward the old ways. Given this, when the household practiced the wuyue, it non merely represented for him the practicing of Yue ( music ) , but constituted an invasion upon the imperial authorization which was represented by Yue ( music ) . In this line of idea, Confucius correlates yue ( music ) with the political authorization it represents, an thought that can be found in many parts of & # 8220 ; the Analects & # 8221 ; . In Book 7, for illustration, we find the followers: & # 8220 ; When the Master was in the province of Qi he heard the Shao music, he for three months after did non even notice the gustatory sensation of meat. He said, & # 8216 ; I ne’er imagined that music could be so sublime. & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ; Further, Confucius says that music should utilize sage-king Shun & # 8217 ; s shao music. The ground for his esteem for the Shao music was non simply the beauty of that signifier of music, but besides the manner the sage kings & # 8217 ; righteousness and & # 8220 ; ren spirits & # 8221 ; were incorporated into it. Therefore, what counts for Confucius is non the joy drawn from the harmonious interconnection of assorted elements of the music, instead the rightness of the message of music, or even the extent to which the liquors contained in the music can associate to his ain ideals. Confucius besides exemplified this inclination in his insisting that it would hold been better to acquire rid of Master Zheng & # 8217 ; s music. Master Zheng & # 8217 ; s music was one of favourite musics that former dictatorships liked most, therefore if his modern-day male monarchs were drawn into it, Confucius reasoned, their imperial regulation might fall in. This illustration demonstrates that Confucius & # 8217 ; perceptual experience of music was more influenced by the historical consequence of Master Zheng & # 8217 ; s music ( a consequence that was at dunces with his idealised position of the Zhou dynasty disposal ) than by its formal elements.

Added to this belief is a farther belief that music reflects the personality of the emperor. The idea that shao could assist one to inherit the spirit of Shun, moreover, is in congruity with Confucius position that the music enjoyed by one of former dictatorships should be rejected and discontinued. Confucian political doctrine emphasiss enlightenment and nurturing. The enlightening consequence of music enables the people to voluntarily hold to certain societal norms. The message content of music that the swayer wants to propagates is really transmitted via the wordss or & # 8220 ; poesy, & # 8221 ; and in this procedure Confucianism assumes that the content of music is immanently contained in the sounds of music. In the Analects, Confucius says that & # 8220 ; If he is non an emperor, he will non speak about rites or rites, nor will he make music & # 8220 ; . In position of the societal influences of music, the control of the swayer over music is conjoined with his authorization over ethical norms. Confucianism argues that the personality of the virtuous individual is contained in music. Yet, Confucius says that & # 8220 ; As for Wu music, although it is practiced attractively, its goodness is non to the full fulfilled & # 8220 ; . This stating represents Confucius & # 8217 ; desire to subject aesthetic consciousness to ethical consciousness, and it at the same time signifies that goodness and beauty should be appreciated independently from one other. In other words, this shows that to beef up his ain sense of independency, the sage as a societal mananger elevates and enlightens his aesthetic sense.

I-C. Xunzi & # 8217 ; s theory on correspndence between emotion and sound.

The Confucian proposition that music reflects virtuousness is persistently applied in Xunzi & # 8217 ; s theory on music. & # 8220 ; Music is something which the sage male monarchs found joy in, for it has the power to do good the Black Marias of the people, to influnece work forces profoundly, and to reform their ways and imposts with facility. & # 8221 ; Xunzi recognizes that music transforms and moves the Black Marias of the people. In his thesis on music, Xunzi says that & # 8220 ; music is joy, an emotion which adult male can non assist but experience at times. Since adult male can non assist experiencing joy, his joy must happen an mercantile establishment in voice and an look in movement. & # 8221 ; Here he argues that music is something adult male can non assist but experience. The joy is created by music & # 8217 ; s voice and motion. Music, hence, is perceived to be inseparable from original human nature. Music is created and produced following the demands of human nature. Namely, the principle for music and its beginning lies in the human bosom. Therefore, the emotions of human existences produce a voice. In other words, all sorts of sound set its foundation in the peculiar emotions of each human being, Voice, denoting some emotions, transforms and gives rise to certain emotions in human bosom.

Xunzi besides argues that music that is created due to the demands of human nature should be fictile and revisable harmonizing to norms. Harmonizing to his position, human desires are drawn from nature, therefore all human existences have them in common. He regards desires as a natural nature and takes it to be recognized per Se. Despite this, nevertheless, he argues that the action and the manner to recognize desires have to be controlled unnaturally. In his position, music plays the function of fostering and commanding these desires.

Li ( rites ) , whose intent is to set up order to human society, does non play its function simply to chair human selfish desires that are the roots of societal upset. Rather its purpose prevarications in culturing and set uping common harmoniousness between human desires and goods. Li as a standard for moderateness and self-constraint will give order to human society. Li will attest its map by clearly finding the perpendicular hierarchy of societal functions. The established of li-compatible & # 8220 ; fen & # 8221 ; ( differentiations ) is requirement for the development of society. However, human society is non maintained merely by a hierarchy of societal differences. Social integrating and harmoniousness is another cardinal facet of order saving. This map of harmoniousness depends on music. In Xunzi, music is inseparable from harmoniousness and Li is besides inextricable from ground. & # 8220 ; Music unites that which is the same ; rites distinguish that which is different. & # 8221 ; Xunzi says that & # 8220 ; music is the most effectual agencies to authorities, & # 8221 ; thereby stressing the socially harmonizing map. He provides some grounds as to how music fulfills societal moralss. The transition is as follows:

& # 8220 ; When music is performed in the hereditary temple of the swayer, and the swayer and his curates, higher-ups and inferiors, listen to it together, there are none who are non filled with a spirit of harmonious fear. When it is performed within the family, and male parent and boies, senior and younger brothers listen to it together, there are none who are non filled with a spirit of harmonious affinity. And when it is performed in the community, and old people and immature toether listen to it, there are none who are non filled with a spirit of harmonious obeisance. Hence music brings about complete integrity and induces harmony. & # 8221 ;

This transition demonstrates that when rites are performed in the family, community, and state, look of fear and award toward higher-ups will promote obeisance to authorization.

The thought of utilizing ritual music as a agency to regulate is besides found in the & # 8220 ; Yueji & # 8221 ; chapter of the Book of Rites. There it is said that & # 8220 ; rites, music, justness establishments and regulating organic structures are different, but the ultimate intent of these is the same. & # 8221 ; The intent is to give order non merely to the Black Marias of single people, but besides to society as a whole.

I-D. Book of Rites on & # 8220 ; Yueji & # 8221 ; : connecting rites and music with cosmogonic order

As a beginning of the Confucian position on music, the & # 8220 ; Yueji & # 8221 ; chapter is rather representative. It enriches and deepens early theories of music. Xunzi & # 8217 ; s basic claim to convey about the societal map of music is besides eminently laid bare here: & # 8220 ; Music harmonizes human Black Marias, rites differentiate societal differences. Harmony gives rise to reciprocally break apprehension and differentiations will promote common regard. When award and fear is formed, differentiation between the baronial and the ignoble will go clearer, and music & # 8217 ; s harmonising power is exercized, harmoniousness between high stratum of society and low stratum of society will follow. & # 8221 ;

The principle for the impression that music should be used to keep societal and national order lies in its power to elicit human spontaneousness. The & # 8220 ; Yueji & # 8221 ; declares that & # 8220 ; music is created from within whereas rites are engendered from without. & # 8221 ; Hence, when music is created from within, this signifies the calming power and when this power is reached at its pinnacle, hatred in human Black Marias will vanish. As to the societal efficaciousness of rites and music, the tone of & # 8220 ; Yueji & # 8221 ; is bluffly crystalline. & # 8220 ; Early sage male monarchs were said to hold governed by exercing modestness as a virtuousness & # 8221 ; in this context signifies the regulating through the medium of rites and music.

As a agency to warrant political authorization, rites and music signifier a connexion with the foundation of nature and cosmology. In the & # 8220 ; Yueji, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; music is the harmoniousness of Heaven and Earth and rites are the order of the existence. Rites represent the rule of Heaven and Earth differentiation whereas music embodies the rule of harmony. & # 8221 ;

Now rites and music are non simply confined to modulating human action as a moral instrument, nor are they merely bring forthing organized sounds to delight the ears. They become a foundational beginning of nature which is the root of human being and therefore they are a organic structure of harmoniousness. Music, described this manner, is the mytaphysical beginning and posseses what is the eqivaletnt of a supernatural capacity to supervise both the natural order and human society. The differentiation between the baronial and the ignoble, or between the old and the immature, originates from music such that human existences now grow transparent to music. This line of idea, in so far as it identifies the beginning of music with that of the existence, is non alone to Confucianism. The & # 8220 ; Yueji & # 8221 ; is fundamentally founded upon Confucianist music theory, but it incorporates Daoism, the Science of the Divination ( Yixue ) , Yin-Yang idea, and Wuxing idea. Hence, this effort to link with the foundation of metaphysics is a consequence of the influences of both Daoism and modest naturalism. But, the specifying feature of Confucianism the manner it explains music & # 8211 ; viz. , by imputing human emotions and value to the condensation and dissipation of all animals of the existence.

Harmonizing to this Confucianist thought, human emotions such as joy, choler, sorrow, and pleasance, are the consequence of the condensation and dissipation of & # 8220 ; qi & # 8221 ; ( matter-energy ) . Human emotions and the sounds of nature arise from the same beginning, therefore human emotions are produced as sounds of nature and these sounds are transmitted to others who are composed of same quality and signifier. This consequences in the emotional correspndence between human existences. In this context, swayers can read the Black Marias of the people via music and likewise, and the temperaments of swayers are transmitted to the people. Herein, Confucianism attaches Confucian virtuousness to the Heavenly order. Confucianists put their will on a par with the order and significance of Eden. As a consequence, animals have a teleological will and voices house human emotions and will power. This is the nucleus of Confucianist niceness music theory that posits that music has in it heartache and joy ( shengyougailelun ) . Sound connotes subjectives human emotions and to the full manifests the virtuousness of sage. This politeness music theory ( shengyougailelun ) was handed down to Yuanji ( 210-263 ) . Yuanji besides thinks that this niceness music theory can forcibly drive place the societal efficaciousness of music. His theory of music was in apposition with Jikang & # 8217 ; s theory of music.

II. A review of Confucianist music theory- Jikang & # 8217 ; s music theory

Jikang & # 8217 ; s music theory ( Shengwuaile lun: & # 8220 ; Discourse on the Nonemotional Nature of Sound & # 8221 ; ) , by contrast, insists that music has in it nor grief or joy, and is therefore a frontal review of Confucianist music theory. The ground for sing Jikang & # 8217 ; s music theory as the first one of aesthetics in China is that his theory is non merely based on Daoist naturalism, but critizes the Confucianist music theory with rich analyses and logical suasion. Jikang & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; Shengwuaile lun & # 8221 ; is in the signifier of a argument between the Host of Dong-ye and a invitee from Jin, with the invitee supporting the tradditional position. The Host of Dong-ye represents Jikang himself and a invitee from Jin embodies Confucianist music theoritician. In the undermentioned portion, I will foremost cover with the incantatory magicism of music. Second, Jikang & # 8217 ; s critical place toward an averment that music reflects the highest virtuousness in political relations will be analyzed. Third, a description and analysis of the claim that there exists a correspondence between emtions and sound will follow.

II-A. A review of the belief in the magicalism of music

First, take a expression at the narrative of Music Master Kuang. Music Master Kuang blew on the pitch-pipes and knew that the poses of the South were noncombative, that the ground forces of Chu would be defeated. As a review of this narrative and its deduction, Jikang broaches the implicit in rule of LuLu ( pitches, stand foring yang and yin severally ) . Lulu is a step of the & # 8220 ; qi & # 8221 ; in four seasons. When in a certain season, chi will travel, and this prompts the response of smasher and this accordingly cause the ashes within & # 8220 ; guan & # 8221 ; . ? ? ? ? ? This consequence is the natural consequence of nature, non of human action. As a consequence of the & # 8216 ; Three-Part Subtraction-Addition & # 8221 ; ( Sanfensunyi ) , lulu that are created up and down will smooth out the harmoniousness of five & # 8220 ; sheng & # 8221 ; and topographic points orderly province into it. But each Lu has its ain sound, and even when blown in winter each sound will non lose any its singularity. Jikang in his 4th argument raises uncertainties about the charming power of Music Master Kuang. Harmonizing to him, when Kuang blew on the pitch-pipes, it raised the uncertainties as to whether it was genuinely a chi from Chu because Jin and Chu are separated by a 1000 Li. His uncertainties raised the undermentioned inquiry: If Kuang genuinely knew the sound was an air of Chu that came and entered his pitch-pipes, so it should be noted that South of Chu are Wu and Yue and to the North are Liang and Sung. Therefore if he did non see the beginning, how could he cognize it ( for sure ) ?

The institutionaization of Lu and confiramtion of the pitches were verified through empirical observation based on the natural scientific disciplines. The observation of & # 8220 ; Qi & # 8221 ; ( known as blowing the ashes ) confirms the truth of the pitch-pipes, and the & # 8220 ; Three-Part Subtraction-Addition, & # 8221 ; which follows natural Torahs, was used to find the pitches of the pitch-pipe that were the footing of weights and steps. The fact that by executing the pitch-pipes, the performing artist can state the consequence of warfare signifies nil but the projection of human existences & # 8217 ; wants and wants onto nature. This is the instance of superstitious magicalims whose implicit in beginnings Jikang debunks. The performing artist who blows on the pitch-pipe is from Jin and the inquiry arises of how the air current of Chu can come in into a performer & # 8217 ; s pitch-pipe wh

O is from Jin such that it changes the tones. Jikang continues that “master Kuang entirely was widely learned in many things and himself possessed the cognition to acknowledge the marks of triumph and licking, but, wishing to put the heads of the multitudes at easiness, he attributed it to the Godhead and cryptic Po Changxian in his warrant of long life to Duke Jing.”

II-B. A review of music theory as a bearer of political virtuousness.

The feature of Confucianism & # 8217 ; s music theory lies in its claim to raise political achievements of a government and uncover the self-respect of the swayer so that it will pull voluntary obeisance from the people. In this respect, music is nil but a political instrument. The premiss underscoring this political intent being that music can transport the personality of sage male monarch. Jikang refuses to accept this Confucianist point of view: & # 8220 ; When Duke Jie stayed in the Lu princedom, he collected the poesy and ascertained rites and therefore came to cognize the societal imposts of that princedom. And When Confucius listened to Shao music, he exclaimed that beauty and good of sage king Shun was identical. & # 8221 ; These are the loci classici of Confucianist music theory. Jikang opposes the thought of tones as the beginning of the efficaciousness of music. The achievements of sage male monarchs come to be known and understood after the lines of music are heard and appreciated. He distinguishes between music linguistic communication composed of tunes and the words of vocals, and he does this because he thinks that these contain their ain different rules of liberty.

Jikang refutes the Confucianist claim that the personality of sage male monarch is subjective in music. In the 2nd argument, the invitee from Chin, a advocate of Confucianism says the followers:

That the eight parts may hold different imposts, and shouting and singing might be wholly different. But people & # 8217 ; s feelings of heartache and joy can surely be perceived. When the bosom is moved on the interior, so music comes away from the bosom. Although you entrust it to other tones, or show it with a excess of sounds, the skilled hearer and tester will needfully understand it ; this will non do him to mistake. In ancient times Po Ya strummed his luting and Chung Chuzi knew what was on his head. The condemnable labourer struck the musical rocks, and Chuzi knew he was grieved.

What this implies is that when you are grieved, your music will surely show grieved Black Marias and produce mournful melodies attesting heartache and sorrow of the bosom. This is a natural response and can non be avoided, but merely those with spirit-like penetration are able keenly to comprehend it. Therefore you can non reason that because you see the many fluctuations in regional usage, music has in it either grief nor joy.

As to this proposition, Jikang refutes it because it contains a logical contradiction.

If a sage male monarch & # 8217 ; s personality is carried in music, the music itself should hold its figure fixed and passed onto ulterior coevalss. For illustration, music Shao must hold fixed figure and expresses the personalities of both sage male monarch Yao and Shun. In this music Shao, the fixed figure can non be mixed up with other signifiers of vocals, nor it can be performed in other signifiers of figure. But the logic of this proposition is in misdemeanor of the statement of the invitee from Jin in the 2nd argument, which claims that there is no fixed jurisprudence of vocal sound and therefore that emotions of heartache and joy can be expressed by utilizing other signifiers of vocal sound.

Jikang criticizes the rules which motivate this contradiction in Confucian thought. & # 8220 ; These are both false records ( made up by ) vulgar bookworms. They fabricated these histories, wishing to do sacred their personal businesss. They wanted the whole universe to misconstrue the manner of music. Hating the fact that they had non met this rare hearer in their ain clip, they longed for the ancients and sighed with esteem. This is the manner they deluded later generations. & # 8221 ;

The review of the Confucianism & # 8217 ; s claim that merely sage male monarch and sage to the full appreciate music is an effort to sabotage and blunt the political motivation of Confucianism that purorts to utilize music as a opinion tool. This review is another denouncement of secular, desire-oriented Confucianism that attempts to fancify the regulation of the governing category as an incarnation of sage male monarch & # 8217 ; s regulation. Concurrently, this review provides a new reading that will broaden aesthetical skyline. His music theory confirms that non merely sage male monarch and sage, but all of the people can hold their ain sense of grasp and apprehension of music. This review besides makes it possible that music agreement becomes one of many artistic signifiers. Music agreement is non to falsify the original nature of original vocal. Arranged music is recognized as a legitimate signifier of music that arouses aethetical sense drawn from a alteration in its pitches and melodies.

In his 3rd argument, Jikang refutes the claim that music does adumbrate the personality of sage male monarch. If music is to stand for the nature of a sage male monarch as a composer and carry the emotions of him, so Perfect Music could non be entrusted to professional music performing artists: we must hold a sage to draw on the strings and blow on the pipes. Merely so will these elegant vocals achieve their perfect signifier. Yet, now as it is in the yesteryear, music is performed by professional performing artists and this itself proves that music does non adumbrate the personality of sage male monarch.

Yet, Jikang & # 8217 ; s defense can be besides refuted by Confucianism. By widening Confucianism & # 8217 ; s place, Jikang & # 8217 ; s defense can be countered by a new reading which posits that if music already intimates the personality of sage male monarch, the true nature or significance of music can be tranmittable merely if public presentation of music is to the full executed. Further, if the performing artist is moved and performs music to the full piece following up on the purpose of sage male monarch, he/she can convey the motivation of sage male monarch. Hence, if existent public presentation of music and the function of the performing artist to the full correspond to the motivation of sage male monarch, the purpose of sage male monarch in music composing can be genuinely and sufficiently transferred.

II-C. A Critique of the point of view of fixed correspondence between emotion and sound

Confucianism claims that the sound of music carries the significance and emotion of worlds. In an effort to confirm this claim, the invitee from Jin takes the illustration of & # 8220 ; GeLu & # 8221 ; who knew that his cow grieved and bellowed her plaint to him that her calves had been sacrificed.

As to this instance, Jikang criticizes every facet of the deduction of it. He merely says that cowss are non of the same species as adult male. In other words, there are no waies of communicating between the two. His cut-throat defense is as follows: if birds and animate beings are both able to talk and GeLu received a particular endowment by which he entirely could understand them, so this is a instance of discoursing their personal businesss by construing their linguistic communication, like interpreting and conveying a foreign lingua. Since it is non a affair of cognizing person & # 8217 ; s feelings by analyzing their music, this is non a valid unfavorable judgment of my place.

In Confucianism, & # 8220 ; if some who is wise will thoroughly understand something every bit shortly as he comes into contact with it, and that there is nil he will non know. & # 8221 ; Jikang, nevertheless, is keenly dubious of this claim and as a counterargument. He continues by inquiring whether, if a sage all of a sudden found himself in the lands of the Hu savages, & # 8220 ; would he understand their linguistic communication or non? & # 8221 ;

As to this uncertainty, Jikang sets out his analysis of cognition by stating the followers.

Must he have repeated contact and exchange with them, and so acquire to cognize their linguistic communication? Or, will be blow on the pitch-pipes and play the bamboo tuning tubings and in this manner analyze their music? Or, will he detect their mode and analyze their facial looks and in this manner cognize thir heads? This ( the latter ) would be a affair of cognizing one & # 8217 ; s mind of course from his air and visual aspect. Even though he himself said nil, you could still cognize his head. Thus the manner of cognizing does non possibly trust on words. If you can blow on the pitch-pipes and analyze their music, and in this manner cognize their heads, so even if person had his head on a Equus caballus but by mistake said & # 8216 ; cervid, & # 8217 ; the tester would decidedly cognize from & # 8216 ; cervid & # 8217 ; that he meant & # 8216 ; Equus caballus & # 8217 ; . This means that one & # 8217 ; s head is non related to what one says: and what one says is possibly non sufficient to verify what is on his head & # 8230 ; . Language is non something that is by nature fixed. The five parts have different imposts ; the same thing has different appellations. We merely choose one name and utilize it as a mark. Now the sage exhausts the rules. This means that whatever is natural can be examined ; there is no obscureness that can non be illuminated. But if the rule involved is hidden, so you will non see it even if you are close by. Therefore, the linguistic communication of a different land can non be forcibly understood

In this unit of ammunition of push and parry, Jikang argues that head does non hold an indispensable relationship with linguistic communication and even in some instances, linguistic communication is non even sufficient to attest head. What this implies is that the presentation of linguistic communication does non possess intrinsic significance. In this instance, one significance can be expressed in an array of linguistic communications. Likewise, the proposition that a individual thing can be expressed in other different linguistic communications signifies that linguistic communication does non hold a fixed correspondence to human head. The claim that linguistic communication is non basically directed to one object, but that it chooses one naming and takes it as a standard has a common land with the account of lanuguage liberty. The significance and the presentation of the word are non basically related, instead they are unnaturally tied to each other and are embedded in societal usage and are frequently to be used in societal context. If one applies this to music linguistic communication, presentation of music linguistic communication itself does non imply needfully the purpose of the composer. Hence, it is natural that a multiplicity of readings follow upon the heels of really listening to music. However, this does non intend that the hearer is inferior in his endowed aesthetic installation, such that he can non hold on one secured motivation of the composer.

The claim that there is no fixed relationship between the expected intension relation between the presentation of words and the significances of words is in maintaining with what is called & # 8220 ; Yanbujinyi-lun & # 8221 ; ( the philosophy that linguistic communication can non wash up significances ) . This is embedded in Wei-Jin XuanXue idea and carries an of import deduction: a receiver of art can pull more diverse and profound aesthetic feelings from an creative person & # 8217 ; s intended message. Further, the claim that linguistic communication is lacking to uncover the human bosom sums to a acknowledgment of the restriction of linguistic communication, therefore paving the manner for a universe of aesthetical intuition that draws on intuition merely.

Jikang verifies the absence of a fixed correspondence between emotion and sound as follows ;

Different parts have different imposts ; singing and shouting are the done all the same. If we mix them up and utilize them, some hear weeping and are pleased ; others listen to vocalizing and go sad. But their feelings of heartache and joy are the same. Now if you use the same feelings to bring forth wholly different sounds, is this non because music has no changeless relation to emotion.

Here Jikang uses different imposts in different parts and even strains it to the utmost instance where some hear weeping and are pleased and others listen to vocalizing and go sad. This explains how indistinguishable emotions can be expressed in different sounds. The faithlessness of sound, viz. look of sounds comparative to certain emotions, has no stability and hence proves that out of internal necessity sound does non show ceertain emotions. Though Jikang & # 8217 ; s point of view is based on this premiss, he does non belie the traditional position that poesy and music are looks of human emotion. Yet, two sounds whose chief characters are harmony, & # 8220 ; gung and Shang, & # 8221 ; are considered the most moving of the cords. Namely, sound is non changeless, therefore this chord is non declarative of any certain emotion, those who in heartache will hear the grieved sounds being created. In harmoniousness of sound there is no fixed signifier, but nil but the grieved bosom has something and this signifies that those who are in heartache in their Black Marias will hear merely heartache from a chord. Here, Jikang raises the inquiry of how to cognize and state one of Zhuangzi & # 8217 ; s propositions, viz. the proposition that all sorts of sound is indistinguishable with all chords created in nature. The phenomenon of hearing merely heartache from a chord dvelopes into usage and when it reaches the point of act uponing political relations, all become sounds of sorrow at this point. This explains the claim that the sound of a fall ining state provokes sorrow. Those who feel sorrow hear some chords and take them merely as sorrowful. This means that by cognizing responses of people toward music you can cognize societal imposts. That a chord has no signifier means that there is no sorrow and joy in a chord and emotion of sorrow and joy is merely contained in human bosom. The thought that indistinguishable emotions can be expressed in assorted sounds is a effect of the proposition that sound by itself contains no signifier. Identical sounds can show assorted different emotions, and there is no indispensable relation between sound and emotion. The sorrow and joy of a sound is determined by sorrow and joy of a individual & # 8217 ; s bosom, non by the sound itself.

Jikang sees that sound has a mercenary nature and so is distinguished from the subjective emotions of human existences. In his 3rd argument, the averment that & # 8220 ; eating pungent things brings on hysterical laughter ; fume in your eyes causes grief-struck sobbing & # 8221 ; is a instance in point. In both instances, & # 8220 ; cryings are produced. But even if you have a Yi Ya savor them, he decidedly will non state that the happy cryings are sweet and the sad cryings acrimonious & # 8221 ; Jikang compares the mercenary nature of sound to wine. And a inquiry arises this manner ; & # 8220 ; The tissues secrete H2O and it beads up in the flesh ; when force per unit area is applied it comes out. It is non controlled by heartache or joy. It is merely like the procedure of striving vino through a cloth poke. Although the device used to press it through may differ, the spirit of the vino is unchanged. Musical sounds are all produced by one and the same beginning. Why must they entirely contain the rules of heartache and joy? & # 8221 ;

How can we explicate the state of affairs where emotion is roused merely by listening to music? The reply lies non in the proposal that a chord contains any symbolic content, but instead in the thought that human subjective emotion causes the production of feelings. The undermentioned transition condenses this point and elucidates this line of idea.

When it encounters harmonious sounds, merely so is it released. Harmonious sounds have no mark, but the grieved bosom has its kernel. If you make the grieved bosom that has an kernel depend on the harmonious sounds that have no mark, so you understand sounds and listen to them. The bosom is moved by harmonious sounds, the feelings touched by anguished is the heartache. How could you cognize? Those who labour sing of their sufferings ; those who are happy dance about their accomplishments. If one & # 8217 ; s bosom is pained and grieved indoors, so words bitter and sad are aroused. Wordss in sequence become poesy ; sounds in sequence become music. We blend the words and intone them, set together the words. The grieved bosom is stored indoors. When it encounters harmonious urther, does it blow otherwise through the 10 1000 things but causes each to be itself?

In this above transition, Jikang explains that sound has no content in orgin, but when sound arouses bosom, people insert their ain emotion into it. Due to this, people & # 8217 ; s emotions are otherwise affected by hearing the same music.

Historically it had been thought that non few people understood this Jikang & # 8217 ; s defense of the thought that specific sounds inspire specific emotions. Most, in fact, took his point of view for a misinterpretation. But we would make better to read Jikang & # 8217 ; s position as follows: there is no stability between emotion and sound and therefore indistinguishable sounds produces changing emotions. Further, a topic & # 8217 ; s emotional province dramas an of import function in grasp of art and the aesthetic, asthetic feelings are taken to be self-generated and different from individual to individual.

All of this is reduced to Jikang & # 8217 ; s view about a certain sort of & # 8220 ; uncertainness & # 8221 ; in musical look, an uncertainness which is in fact a specifying feature of art. If music is partial and is determined to be fixed, simple and devoid of alterations, so even if it can show certain particular feelings, it can non show assorted feelings and multiple ideas.

II-D. Separation thesis: bosom and sound are distinguishable

So far I have delineated the chief features of Jikang & # 8217 ; s review of the claim that sound has a fixed signifier. Next we will analyze the proposition that bosom and sound are different objects. This proposition is a necessary deduction of the contention that & # 8220 ; sound has in it neither sorrow nor joy. & # 8221 ; Because sound is already unrelated to grieve or rejoice, and because sorrow and joy are merely what our Black Marias are meant to experience, it follows that bosom ( xin ) and sound are two different objects. Hypothetically speech production, if bosom and sound is correlated to each other, viz. sorrow and joy of bosom are expressed in their corresponding opposite number in sound, it does non follow that Jikang & # 8217 ; s claim of nonemotinal nature of sound proves to be a success. Hence, to shore up the claim that sound has in it neither sorrow nor joy, he should pull the logical decision that bosom and sound are two different things.

Following Jikang & # 8217 ; s averment, it is just to state that the sound of music will travel a human bosom in certain ways. Feelingss or emotions of human existences are formed by words of music, therefore doing a clear differentiation between sound of music and human emotion. Jikang refutes the Confucianist averment that sound has in it sorrow or joy. In music, sound is an external look thereof and feelings constitute its internal content, but they do non hold changeless correspondence. It is like & # 8220 ; doing sound by exciting breath difficult and doing an old air current instrument produce sound by make fulling it with breath. & # 8221 ; In other words, the sound of music carries natural and hence nonsubjective responses. The undermentioned transition provides rich penetrations in conformance with this line of idea:

That the good or immorality of the sound of a call does non come from the good or bad luck of the babe & # 8217 ; s oral cavity is merely like the fact that the turbidity and clarity in the sound of a luting or cither does non lie in the accomplishment or awkwardness of the participant. That the head can separate rules and carry on skilled conversation but still can non do a flute drama swimmingly, is merely like the fact that a instrumentalist can be skilled in beat but can non do his instrument sing pure and clear. An instrument is good with no dependance on the refined instrumentalist ; the flute is harmonious but non because of the intelligent head. This being so, so bosom and music are clearly two separate things. Since the two are genuinely this manner, so one who is seeking to cognize person else & # 8217 ; s feelings does non pass clip detecting his visual aspect and signifier, and analyzing the head does non trust on listening to sounds and tones.

Jikang takes music as one signifier of & # 8220 ; qi & # 8221 ; and therefore assumes that it distinguishes sound as natural sound and sorrow and joy as the subjective feelings or emotions in human Black Marias. Given this, sound of nature and human bosom are clearly two separate things.

His basic statement that bosom and sound are separate things is as follows: Taste is composed of resentment and sugariness whereas worlds have both stupidity and shrewdness. Sweet gustatory sensation makes people happy while bitterness makes people angry. Wise people others whereas stupid people hate others. Yet, felicity and choler prevarication within me, sugariness and resentment prevarication in gustatory sensation, and love and hatred roots from me while shrewdness and stupidity come from without.

When one can non name sweet gustatory sensation & # 8220 ; Sweet, & # 8221 ; name resentment & # 8220 ; bitter, & # 8221 ; name wise people that he loves & # 8220 ; wise, & # 8221 ; nor name stupid 1s & # 8220 ; hateful people, & # 8221 ; it is because external objects ( sugariness, resentment, shrewdness and stupidity ) and internal human feelings ( felicity, choler, love, and hatred ) are different from each other. Furthermore, it is because original sugariness, resentment, shrewdness and stupidity attributed to external objects are distingushible from human existences & # 8217 ; subjective feeling or emotions such as felicity, choler, sorrow, and pleasance. Sorrow and pleasance are affairs of human feelings and therefore are non related to sounds. This implies the decision that name is dissociable from world. In other words, calling of sorrow and pleasance is non related to existent sounds thereof. Jikang does non govern out that felicity and choler is caused by vino, love and hatred is engendered by how wise or stupid people are, and sorrow and pleasance are created by sounds. The issue at interest here is that because of this, gustatory sensations are called Sweet or bitter, people are called loving people or detesting people, and sound is differentiated into sorrowful sound or joyful sound.

Herein, human & # 8217 ; s subjective emotional judgement of things is clearly different from nonsubjective natural universe. Harmonizing to Jikang, these two are clearly distinguished from one other. One of the startlingly rational facet of Jikang & # 8217 ; s thought prevarications in its accent on the distintion between two different judgements. As described above, & # 8220 ; sweet gustatory sensation, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; acrimonious gustatory sensation, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; people to love & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; people to detest & # 8221 ; are non right footings because this distintion appreciation temperaments of two different gustatory sensations such as & # 8220 ; sugariness and bitterness. & # 8221 ; This is besides true of two different temperaments claimed by human existences such as & # 8220 ; love and hatred. & # 8221 ; This is caused by the confusion that mistakes subjective emotional judgement for judgement of nonsubjective characters of things. The sound of heartache and the sound joy sound are usually used. But grief and joy do finally mention to human feelings and this does non intend that they depart from human emotional dimension and contain heartache and joy on their ain. Sound can show emotions of both heartache and joy and therefore it can be said that sound contains grief and joy. Yet, to be exact, sound merely makes the look of feelings or emotions possible. Sound itself does non incorporate either heartache or joy. Jikang & # 8217 ; s part lies in its effort to separate between a individual & # 8217 ; s subjective emotional opinion of things and her judgement of the nonsubjective natures of things.

Reasoning comments

The contention that the sounds of music are based on the natural universe and should be distingshed from human & # 8217 ; s subjective feelings is the nucleus of Jikang & # 8217 ; s review of the Confucianist theory of music. The Confucianist position is motivated by a theory of art which purports to do the intended value of a swayer via music a cosmopolitan value of a whole society. The Confucianist belief that human feelings or emotions are attributable to subjective value judgements contained in nature & # 8217 ; s sounds is a consequence of an semblance & # 8211 ; an semblance based on the conflation of the natural universe of things with the societal order of human existences. The really simple belief that music is an look of humanity entails an reading of music merely in the context of societal usage and therefore fails to appreciate music as a harmonious signifier of beauty entirely. Jikang refutes the magicalistic premise that sound can foretell a certain province of personal businesss. Based on a scientific cognition of smasher that was used as the basic sound and step standard at the clip, he criticizes the unscientificness of magicalism and political purposes embodied in it.

Further, he besides refutes the claim that music reflects political virtuousness. Not merely does he nail the internal contradictions of Coufucianism on this issue, but he distinguishes the words of music from the significance of music and therefore acknowledges common independent rules between the two. He besides broadens the gamut of music as a beginning of enjoyment and promotes the position that music can be interpreted in multiple ways. The claim that there is no matching relation between sound and feeling or emotion lends itself to a farther averment that sound carries an aim

& # 8221 ; mercenary nature & # 8221 ; which is separated from subjective emotions. This explains how one & # 8217 ; s feelings can be aroused simply by listening to music. When human existences listen to sounds, sounds are a finely tuned organic structure with no peculiar content. Sounds arouse the human bosom by giving a individual to infix his ain subjective emotions. Jikang & # 8217 ; s theory that music has in it neither sorrow nor joy has an ontological docket: it purports to separate the sounds of nature from human bosom. Thus it is demanded that hearer should hear sounds as such harmonizing to his point of view. When people transcend the human emotions of heartache and joy, a true sense of the beauty of the signifier of music will be reached.

Jikang, in his ain theory of music, takes music as nature itself, and does non see the beginning of music as standing beyond the natural universe. On the reverse he searches for the foundation of music & # 8217 ; s being within nature universe. Basically, through the medium of music decently understood and in unison with nature with other things, human existences experience the extreme joy of religious value, viz. joy of no music ( wuyue ) . In order to enjoy this joy and attain ultimate beauty, a judgement of value of right and incorrect should be forgone. The position which so highlights a transcendent brotherhood with nature really runs parallel to the Confucianism & # 8217 ; s accent on ethical consciousness as something that encompasses aesthetic consciousness rooted in value judgements of right and incorrect. Daoist music is separated from magicalism, historical facts, secular emotions and so forth and therefore secures its ain ontological domain and remains a signifier of nature. When one hears music as such, aesthetic consciousness becomes executable. The imortance of music is non placed under doctrine and political relations but now claims its ain domain and comes to vouch its ain infinite. At this minute, value of music is no longer instrumentalized and therefore takes on its ain teleology and an independent set of criterions.

Now music has to possess its ain experiential significance as a harmonious sound of natural universe in order to foster its self-creation in the dynamism of nature. When human consciousness reveals the kineticss that are at the root of its ain natural being, it can carry through its freedom and in so making can be created. In the topographic point where human nature and nature & # 8217 ; s internal forces have a common land and in communicating with each, the human head is spirited and elastic. As human existences come to bask this natural character and the nature in themselves, they become free and beautiful. The harmonious sound that reveals and draws upon the natural beauty of worlds is musical art. The intent of art is to interrupt out of the bondage of the feelings and afflictions engendered by emotions and make the limitless freedom of the head.

The significance of the proposition that artistic experience can assist to bring forth the free head lies in knocking and doubting the boundary of bing values while at the same clip promoting our heads to a broader skyline that is no longer encumbered by present restrictions. Jikang logically criticizes the Confucianist premises that intent to integrate the sounds of music whose nature is based in natural universe into the Confucianist order. He therefore abandons the political and instrumentalist map of musical art. He observes that one person is internally connected with others, but he besides envisions a new topic & # 8217 ; s consciousness to be farther developed spontaneously. True art has to do possible the creative activity of the consciousness of the free topic. No

Post Author: admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *