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In this paper, we studied the relationship between the sum of televised force and the stamina of males and females. Our hypothesis was that on telecasting, tough males are the victims of force more than tough females. In order to turn out or rebut this hypothesis, we watched five different telecasting shows and documented the sum of force directed toward tough males and tough females. Harmonizing to our consequences, the hypothesis is non right and tough females are the victims of force more frequently than tough males.

Introduction

The basic rules of sociology rely on the construct of the sociological imagination.A The sociological imaginativeness is defined as the ability to see the impact of groups on behaviour by taking an foreigner ‘s position. This construct can be used in measuring the degree of force seen on Television and is of import in understanding the hypothesis that tough males are more violent than tough females. By watching telecasting we can measure the degree of force between males and females from an foreigner ‘s position ; this can straight act upon the lives of males and females in existent life and is the ground why it is of import to analyze and understand the correlativity between force on telecasting and force in existent life.

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The two of import degrees of orientation studied in Sociology are micro-level orientation and macro-level orientation. Micro-level orientation focuses on the person and what drives him or her to move in certain ways due to internalized desires. Toughness and televised force tantrum in with the construct of micro-level orientation because violent characters within telecasting shows can be seen as inherently aggressive due to their genetic sciences. Macro-level orientation focal points on how the person is influenced by interactions with other persons or groups. Macro-level orientation tantrums in with the construct of stamina and televised force when characters within a show become violent due to the influences of the other violent people that they choose to environ themselves with.

The four elements of civilization studied in sociology are linguistic communication, cognitive, normative, and engineering and stuff. Stamina and televised force can be analyzed utilizing each of these four elements of civilization. The linguistic communication component of civilization trade with the manner in which people express their thoughts, values, feelings, beliefs, and cognition. Harmonizing to the linguistic communication component of civilization, the usage of obscene linguistic communication in televised shows is of import because of its association with stamina and force in today ‘s civilization. Televised force uses obscene linguistic communication in order to make a darker ambiance in which the degree of stamina and force is heightened. The cognitive component of civilization is based on beliefs that may or may non be scientifically proven. When looking at the cognitive component of civilization in relation to toughness and televised force, the perceptual experience of stamina within the survey is the consistent usage of endangering and cuss words or the consistent engagement in violent Acts of the Apostless, such as whippings, which result in blood and Gore, rank in packs, and the usage of arms. The normative component of civilization trades with the values of a society as a whole and how people work towards or withstand them. A value is an thought that is considered to be really of import to a specific society. An illustration of a value in televised stamina would be the strength of an person. Normative civilization consists of folkways, mores, formal and informal norms, formal and informal countenances, and external and internal countenances. While the misdemeanor of folkways result in minimum penalty, mores, most of which are Torahs, consequence in much harsher penalties when violated. A misdemeanor of a folkway refering stamina would be verbal maltreatment or minimum physical injury such as punching, slapping, or kicking. An illustration of a misdemeanor of a more would be utmost physical injury such as anguish or slaying. Formal norms, which are written Torahs, and informal norms, which are unwritten Torahs, can be used to analyse stamina and televised force by analyzing the misdemeanor of the formal and informal Torahs within telecasting shows. An illustration of a formal norm in televised force would be the jurisprudence stating that it is illegal to perpetrate slaying, and if this offense is committed the consequence would be a countenance. An illustration of an informal norm in televised force would be the position that it is more acceptable for a adult female to hit a adult male than for a adult male to hit a adult female. A countenance, which is a signifier of wages or penalty for acting in a certain manner, can be either positive or negative and internal or external. A positive countenance is given when one follows the normative component of the civilization and a negative countenance is a penalty for when one violates the normative component of the civilization. The intent of the negative countenance is to promote the culprit to stay by the set values of the society. An internal countenance is when oneself feels the effects of an action and an external countenance is when person other than oneself gives the effects of an action to a individual. An illustration of an internal countenance associating to violence would be the feeling of guilt one would acquire after slaying an guiltless victim, while an illustration of an external countenance would be a police officer seting person in gaol after that individual commits a slaying. A formal countenance is when person with more authorization than the individual who committed the offense administers the wages or penalty, and an informal countenance is when person with no authorization over the individual who committed the offense gives him or her a penalty or wages for his or her actions. As stated above in the illustration of an external countenance, an illustration of a formal countenance would be when a constabulary officer arrests a condemnable alternatively of that individual being apprehended by a citizen ‘s apprehension, which would be considered an informal countenance. Technology and stuff is the last component of civilization. When analysing televised force utilizing this component of civilization, one looks at how engineering today influences the development of stamina and force. An illustration of how toughness and force is developed by engineering is through newer signifiers of arms and machinery. The mass media is considered to be the agent of socialisation that televised force falls under because it is through the media, such as telecasting and films, that the thoughts of force can be portrayed to the populace.

It is of import to understand the dominant civilization and subcultures of an country of survey in order to better grok why consequences turn out as they do. The dominant civilization of the televised force survey is the United States of America and the subculture is restricted to the people within the dominant civilization who cause force in footings of physical or emotional injury. Different position places within the dominant civilization of the field of survey would be police officers, felons, and tough males or females. The function outlooks of constabulary officers are to implement the jurisprudence by catching felons, the function outlooks of the felons are to interrupt the jurisprudence, and the function outlooks of the tough males and females are to defy physical and emotional injury, or force, that they are subjected to.

Out of the three theories of socialisation, which are Mead ‘s Generalized Other Theory, Cooley ‘s Looking-Glass Self Theory, and Goffman ‘s Dramaturgical Approach, stamina and televised force can outdo be explained utilizing the Generalized Other Theory because the tough characters learn their violent behaviours by copying the force that other characters demonstrate. The first of the four phases, the preparatory phase, is when the character can merely copy the people in his or her life with no comprehension of the relationships between functions and positions. The 2nd phase, the drama phase, is when a character imitates the people in his or her life and bit by bit begins to understand the relationships between their functions and positions in society. The 3rd phase, the game phase, is when a character is able to understand non merely a individual person, but besides the functions of multiple persons. The 4th phase, the generalized other phase, is when a character can understand all the functions and positions in a society and can grok their relationships with one another and how they influence each other. We can analyse stamina and televised force and interrupt it down to suit into each of these four phases. During the preparatory phase, a character can non be tough or violent unless he or she witnesses other people being tough or violent. During the drama phase, a violent character realizes the power he or she has when being tough or violent and can judge when it would be appropriate to do minimum physical and emotional injury or a great trade of physical and emotional injury. During the game phase, a violent character understands all the positions of a society such as constabulary officers, felons, kidnapers, or pack members and can see how they relate to each other. During the generalised other phase a violent character connects all of the functions within his or her society and understands the effects that may happen if he or she commits a violent act. A A

There are many ways in which stamina and televised force relate to the elements of civilization and dominant civilization. All stamina and televised force within this survey deals with the dominant civilization of the United States. Harmonizing to the linguistic communication component of civilization, stamina and televised force usage obscene linguistic communication in order to make a violent atmosphere, as is typically seen in the American society. The cognitive component is portrayed through the beliefs that Americans hold in respect to what we perceive stamina and force to be: blood, Gore, anguish, and obscene linguistic communication. The Normative component is portrayed through televised force by the usage of formal norms and countenances within a society and is applied particularly when a condemnable violates a formal norm. The engineering and material component is applied through televised force by the usage of new and advanced arms and new signifiers of anguish.

Tough male characters are more likely to be portrayed as victims of televised force than tough female characters because the media portrays more males being victimized than females. In the dominant civilization of the United States, society has made it a societal norm for males to be seen as more tough and aggressive than females. Another possible account would be due to the genetic sciences of males. Males are of course stronger, territorial, and more aggressive than females.

By watching telecasting we are taking an foreigner ‘s position because we are non involved with the force traveling on. The violent characters within a show may be violent because they are inherently aggressive due to genetic sciences or because they are around other characters that are violent and they influence the behaviours of the chief character. A character that is inherently violent influences others in a show and makes them more susceptible to going violent. Due to the intension attributed to the usage of obscene linguistic communication in the dominant civilization of the United States, a show is seen as more violent when obscene linguistic communication is used because negative words are associated with stamina and force. The definition of stamina within this survey is termed as the consistent usage of endangering words and pest words or the perennial engagement in violent Acts of the Apostless that result in blood and Gore, belonging to a pack, and the usage of arms. The definition of force used with the survey is anything that causes physical or emotional injury. A telecasting show that is seen as normal in footings of force within the American society portrays a “ bad cat ” as holding the feature of an highly tough character. Society can see the different types of stamina and force by using technological and material resources through the mass media. With the dominant civilization being the United States, the subculture within this survey would be the characters that cause force. The dominant civilization consists of different functions and positions and illustrations refering to this survey would be the position of a bull and his or her function to implement the jurisprudence and the position of a condemnable and his or her function to interrupt the jurisprudence. Toughness and televised force can be analyzed by using the Generalized Other Theory to a violent or tough state of affairs because the beginning of violent can be traced to the different phases of imitation described in the Generalized Other Theory. It is of import to understand the societal position of force within a civilization. In the dominant civilization of the United States, it is more common for males to be portrayed as being more tough and violent than females. This information leads to the hypothesis of our survey which is that tough males are victims of televised force more frequently than tough females. A A

In this survey, a tough male or tough female is considered to be any character that is subjected to or do moderate to high degrees of force. Violence is defined as anything that causes physical or emotional hurting. The undermentioned graduated table denotes the differences in degrees of force: A

1 = non a victim ( of force )

-A individual who does non do emotional or physical hurting and is non subjected to emotional or physical hurting.

2 = minimally victimized ( of force )

-A individual who merely verbally abuses people or is merely verbally abused.

3 = reasonably victimized ( of force )

-A individual who somewhat hits, smacks, or kicks person or is somewhat hit, slapped, or kicked by person else.

4 = really exploited ( of force )

-A individual who badly abuses person, such as anguish ( injuring or knifing ) , but does non slay that individual or person who is tortured but non murdered.

5 = wholly victimized ( of force )

-A individual who is highly opprobrious, such as perpetrating slaying or multiple slayings, or is badly abused by person else.

Methods

The independent variable of the survey is sex and the properties are tough male and tough female. The dependent variable is force and the properties are high degrees of force and low degrees of force. The independent variable sex was operationally defined harmonizing to the gender that the character was portraying. The dependant variable force was operationally defined as anything that causes physical or emotional hurting. The research method utilized to obtain informations was out of context content analysis. Five plans were watched, each analysing either a tough male or a tough female. The five plans were “ It ‘s Always Sunny in Philadelphia ” , “ Alias ” , “ Dexter ” , “ Prison Break ” , and “ 24 ” .

“ It ‘s Always Sunny in Philadelphia ” is a show that focuses on the day-to-day happenings of a group of friends that own a saloon named “ Paddy ‘s Pub ” . This plan is widely known for its high degrees of violative linguistic communication and content. The episode studied wasA Frank Sets Sweet Dee on Fire. Frank, the proprietor of Paddy ‘s Pub, Mac and Charlie, two friends and co-owners of the saloon, and Dee, the barman of the saloon and girl of Frank, are on a mission to go celebrated. In order to make this, the males convince Dee to salvage a box of kitties by stating her she will look like a hero and become celebrated in Philadelphia for her good bosom. Alternatively, they trick her and put out the house in kerosine prior to her reaching and put it on fire once she enters and so watch as Dee runs out of the house on fire, shouting. The work forces win in flim-flaming Dee one more clip into trying to salvage a box of kitties, but they once more catch her on fire. Throughout the episode, ceaseless verbal maltreatment is exchanged between Dee and the other characters because they are invariably castigating and deriding her. Dee was the tough female character we studied in this episode. Dee withstood being caught on fire twice and being called obscene names, every bit good as naming her fellow friends names utilizing disgusting linguistic communication.

The 2nd telecasting show we analyzed was “ Alias ” . Alias is a show based chiefly on a female character that works for the CIA and works in highly unsafe state of affairss affecting enemies of the CIA who try to subvert it. Sydney Bristow, the chief character we study as a though female, undergoes several different assumed names in order to hide her individuality when she is in contact with the enemy. The specific episode we watched was the coda of season two. Sydney and her friend Will recognize that their “ friend ” , Francie, is really the enemy they have been seeking for who was surgically modified to look like an exact ringer of their existent friend Francie. The bogus Francie putting to deaths Will and efforts to kill Sydney in a five minute long physical conflict between the two adult females. Sydney Bristow is a character invariably put into life endangering state of affairss by being an clandestine undercover agent and personally pass oning with the enemy. It is really normal for Sydney to kill a individual in an episode of “ Alias ” and to prosecute in multiple physical battles stoping with lesions on both sides.A

The 3rd show analyzed was “ Dexter ” . Dexter is a show about a consecutive slayer, Dexter Morgan, who merely kills people who deserve to decease harmonizing to a codification his male parent, Harry, set Forth: merely kill when you are certain that individual has committed a slaying and programs to kill once more. Dexter kills because of impulses of unknown beginning and Harry taught Dexter to tackle those impulses and concentrate them into merely killing the guilty. The major turn to the show is that Dexter works for the Miami Police Department as a blood spatter analyst and his co-workers have no thought that some of the homicide instances they investigate are Dexter ‘s making. The specific episode of Dexter we analyzed was about Dexter ‘s programs to kill his best friend Miguel Prado, the lone adult male Dexter had of all time told about his dark, homicidal secret. Dexter teaches Miguel to slay, believing that Miguel will follow Harry ‘s Code by merely killing the guilty. However, Miguel gets caught up in the bang of the putting to death and slayings an guiltless adult female. This causes Dexter to see Miguel a unsafe, unpredictable adult male, and the episode follows Dexter and his program to kill Miguel. Dexter Morgan is a laid back, emotionless adult male. He ne’er uses disgusting linguistic communication and is really careful about everything he does or says. You ne’er see him prosecute in any physical or verbal battles with his familiarities or friends. The lone clip he is violent is when he unleashes his interior impulses and slayings his carefully chosen victims. Dexter frequently uses knives, chain saws, and wires and finally cuts each of his victims into pieces and puts their limbs into plastic bags.

The 4th show analyzed was “ Prison Break ” . “ Prison Break ” is a show about a adult male ‘s despairing steps to interrupt his wrongfully accused brother out of prison. In order to make so Michael Scofield creates an highly luxuriant program affecting perpetrating a offense and being incarcerated in the same prison as his brother. The command buttocks is program is that he The command buttocks is program is that he was one of the original interior decorators of the prison and has entree to the original designs, so he has them tattooed on his organic structure disguised by an elaborate, artsy design. The episode analyzed was the pilot of season one. The episode portrays Michael robbing a bank with a gun in order to acquire sent to the prison where his brother is incarcerated. Once Michael is in the prison, he gets beat up by three other captives. Michael Scofield is a really quiet perceiver but is really “ tough ” because when he gets into the prison battle, he merely takes the clouts and does non hit back.

A A A A A A The 5th show analyzed was “ 24 ” . “ 24 ” is based around a chief character named Jack Bauer. Jack works for CTU, the Counter Terrorist Unit, and the episodes are set in real-time based on hour-long increases of a twenty-four hours in Jack Bauer ‘s life. In the specific episode analyzed, Jack is trailing a adult male named Marwan. When Jack and his CTU crew brush Marwan in an all out adult male Hunt, Marwan shoots at the crew killing one of the CTU agents and injuring another. Jack finally shoots Marwan in the mortise joint, injuring him badly. Marwan tries to hurtle himself off the top of a edifice but Jack grabs his manus.in order to pull out information from him before he can plump to the land. Hanging between life and decease by lone Jack ‘s manus, Marwan slashes Jack ‘s manus with a knife but Jack maintains his appreciation. Finally, Marwan faux pass and falls to his decease and Jack does non larn the of import information that merely Marwan knew. Jack Bauer is a character that is really strong willed, apparently indestructible, and is ever one measure in front of the game.

Consequences

The tabular array above shows that the average rate of force in telecasting including males is a four. The average rate of force for males is besides a four. There is no manner for the information sing the televised force including males. Refering the rate of force for females, the average rate of force in telecasting is a 4.5. The average rate of force in telecasting for females is besides a 4.5. There is besides no manner for the set of informations about the force on telecastings for females. The norms shown in the tabular array do non back up the hypothesis that tough males are more violent than tough females. This is shown by the fact that the norms refering females and force are higher than the norms of the males. The result of this information can be interpreted as being pervert from the societal norms typically perceived in a society in the dominant civilization of the United States. It shows that males are non ever perceived as more violent through the media ; nevertheless, the informations that was obtained may be excessively little of a sample size to be able to be the footing of any theory that wishes to keep cogency. Due to the little figure, the sample size is non representative to how events occur in existent life or in the bulk of telecasting shows. Although the informations did non back up the hypothesis, it is possible that the informations, if collected into a larger sample size, could be more representative of the hypothesis.A A The correlativity coefficient between male stamina and force is -.21. This correlativity coefficient means that the relationship between male stamina and force is an opposite relationship, intending that as male stamina goes up, force will travel down and when male force goes up male stamina will travel down. The grade of the relationship is non strong at all and is about negligible. This correlativity coefficient besides is non statistically important. When a correlativity coefficient is non statistically important it is non supposed to be used as an accurate manner to mensurate relationships. Refering the hypothesis, the grade of relationship between male stamina and force can non be supported because the information is non statistically important. Besides, the inaccuracy and insignificance of this correlativity coefficient does non back up the hypothesis that males are tougher than females, because as male stamina goes up, force goes down and as force goes up, male stamina goes down. If males were in fact tougher than females, the correlativity coefficient would be direct, significant, and statistically important. The correlativity coefficient between female stamina and force is.57** . This is a direct relationship, so as force goes up female stamina goes up, or as force goes down female stamina goes down. The grade of the relationship is significant and statistically important. This does non back up the hypothesis that males are tougher than females. If the correlativity coefficient were to back up the hypothesis, it would hold an opposite relationship, the grade of the relationship would be little or negligible, and it would non be significantly significant.A

Discussion

Harmonizing to the informations obtained from this survey, the hypothesis that tough males are more violent than tough females is non supported. This means that the information supports an thought antonym than that of the hypothesis. The hypothesis that can be drawn from the informations collected from this survey supports the thought that tough females are more violent than tough males. This excessively is supported by a correlativity coefficient that is statistically important, intending that the information is dependable. If the informations collected from the five telecasting plan samples is so an accurate portraiture of the correlativity between stamina and force in work forces and the stamina and force in adult females, females would be tougher and more violent in existent life. The correlativity coefficient provided information about the existent relationship between males refering stamina and force and females refering stamina and force. The existent relationship between males is an indirect relationship in which the sum of male stamina additions as force lessenings and frailty versa ; nevertheless, this information is non statistically important and can non be used as a dependable footing for future surveies. As for the relationship between females refering stamina and force, there is a direct relationship. As female stamina additions, female force besides increases. This information is statistically important and can be used in future surveies because it is considered dependable. The possible accounts as to why females would be more violent may be supported by a micro-level orientation saying that females are more violent as a consequence of their biological make-up because they are inherently more protective of their progeny and must be tough in order for their kids to last. This thought is radically different from how the dominant civilization of the United States positions stamina and force among males and how the dominant civilization positions stamina and force among females. Males are typically portrayed as tougher and more violent than females due to their cistrons and the natural inherent aptitudes that males are born with. Problems with this informations include differences in sentiment as to what the operational definition of stamina and force is. Our operational definition of stamina and force is anything that causes physical or emotional injury. The little sample size used is another job that can blemish the informations and cogency of the hypothesis. This is because the little sample size can no manner be every bit compared to the size of the existent universe. Five samples were used and this figure is much excessively little to be able to be representative of the full population. The samples chosen were non done so by random ; they were chosen due to what we considered favourable. This may hold altered the result of the survey because we chose shows we knew would hold both tough males and tough females. We besides chose episodes we knew we could roll up relevant informations from and we tried to hold an equal proportion of tough males to tough females.

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