neology word diachronic
The topic of the probe in this survey is neologisms and their word edifice means in Modern English. Its purposes are to show assorted ways of word edifice, analyze top 50 neologies and to find the most often used word organizing types.
The work consists of two chief parts. Chapter I gives a description of neologies: definition, historical analysis, cultural credence factor. Chapter II trades with manor and major word edifice types, nowadayss latest top 50 neologies, analyzed and arranged in table harmonizing to their word edifice type, beginning and clip of visual aspect, sphere of use, ability to make new signifiers, new impression visual aspect. Both qualitative ( semantic, structural, contextual ) and quantitative methods of analysis are employed.
The stuff for the surveies was collected in February, 2004, on www.wordspy.com.
The consequences of the analysis are supplied with assorted strategies and tabular arraies.
There is no uncertainty that the English linguistic communication today is the most widely used linguistic communication for international communicating. Wordss and looks are born, live for a short clip and so decease or happen their topographic point in our vocabulary harmonizing to the impermanent or lasting nature of the fenomena they describe.
Indeed, if no new words were to look, it would be a mark that the linguistic communication was moribund ; the advancement of humanistic disciplines and scientific disciplines gives birth to a big bulk of new words: each new word that does look should be badly scrutinized before it becomes by and large accepted. So this work does a research into all word & # 8211 ; organizing agencies to find the most productive ways of organizing new words that appeared in the 1880ss, 1890ss and in the beginning of the Twenty-one century. They are registered on www.wordspy.com
as 50 top neologies.
We have determined some purposes in our probe:
& # 8211 ; to overview neology diachronically ( to show the historical development of the fenomenon ) ;
& # 8211 ; to look into the job of cultural credence, as that is the important point in the neology existance, as stableness and suitableness, which are determined by the populace ;
& # 8211 ; to give the complete categorization of word-building agencies, both childs and major ;
& # 8211 ; to show the grounds for high or low productiveness of each word-building type given ;
& # 8211 ; to give the overview of all possible beginnings, where the information on neologies can be taken ;
& # 8211 ; to analyze the top 50 neologies ( Wordspy.com ) and analyze them utilizing quantative and qualitative analysis, harmonizing to their word edifice type, beginning and clip of visual aspect, sphere of use, ability to make new signifiers, new impression visual aspect.
The freshness of the probe lies in analizing the new words that are unstable so far as a group and still doing their manner in the linguistic communication.
The paper consists of the introductory portion saying the aims and purposes of the probe. Chapter I considers the impression of neologies and the development of the fenomenon, besides it deals with cultural credence factors. The 2nd chapter presents the word edifice types and the beginnings of new words and so there is given a many sided description of 50 top neologies.
In the addendum, we find it necessary to show the exersises ( where derivation in neologism is the chief rule ) , where pupils could develop their accomplishments to make new words, which would besides widen students & # 8217 ; mentality and develop their creational linguistic communication abilities.
Neologism, its definition, development and cultural credence
1.1 Introductory information, links with other scientific disciplines
No new scientific discipline is possible without neologies, new words or new readings of old words to depict and explicate world in new ways. How could Aristotle hold developed the logic of syllogisms or Newton the theory of kineticss without new vocabularies and definitions? They were neologists, and everybody desiring to lend new cognition must be. & # 171 ; To reject neologies, frequently despicably, is to reject scientific development. No mark of scientific conservativism is so revealing as the rejection of all but the constituted constructs of a school of idea. Neologisms are, nevertheless, comparative to the terminological paradigm really ruling a field of cognition. It may be a extremist reclamation to present footings from a tradition believed to be outmoded. & # 187 ; ( Ingar Roggen, 1996 )
There exist assorted definitions of such a linguistical event, as neology,
and every of them expresses the effect of this impression taking into the consideration one of the legion facets of neology. The most general are:
& # 171 ;
Neologisms are & # 171 ; words that have appeared in a linguistic communication in connexion with new phenomena, new constructs, & # 8230 ; but which have non yet entered into the active vocabularies of a important part of the native talkers of the linguistic communication & # 187 ; . ( Woodhouse lexicon, 1972, p. 225 )
& # 171 ; Aneology
is the term used to depict a word that has been made-up or invented by a talker, which appears in a transcript of self-generated address duologue. It can besides be described as a word which does non look in the lexicon of the primary spoken linguistic communication, but which is besides non a foreign word. & # 187 ; ( Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wiktionary.org ) Or:
The common thing in these both definitions is that neology is non yet registered in lexicons and in most instances it is a colloquial for the clip being.
For case, the word & # 171 ; nigilist & # 187 ; ( nihilist ) [ & lt ; Latin & # 171 ; nihil & # 187 ; ( nil ) ] was foremost used in an essay in 1829 ( Shanskii 1971, p. 128 )
; and was popularized in Turgenev ‘s Fathers and Sons
( 1962 )
, through his word picture of the extremist physician of the 1860 ‘s, Bazarov. & # 187 ; The ground for presenting the word into the linguistic communication was that there were many immature people of that clip believing that nil had significance or value. Equally shortly as the word was coined it was accepted by the society and has existed in a figure of linguistic communications since so.
If we take some scientific disciplines in peculiar, we may see, all of them reflect the kernel of the impression, as there is & # 171 ; ever something new & # 187 ; . For case, in linguistics
, a neology is a recently-coined word, or the act of contriving a word or phrase. Additionally it can connote the usage of old words in a new sense i.e. , giving new significances to bing words or phrases. As it was mentioned above neologies are particularly utile in placing new innovations, new phenomena, or old thoughts which have taken on a new cultural context. The word & # 171 ; neology & # 187 ; was coined around 1800 and was, at that clip, a neology itself.
In psychological science, a neology is a word invented by a individual enduring from psychotic upsets ; head-shrinkers sometimes use these neologies, which frequently have intending merely to the topic, as hints to find the nature of the topic ‘s upset. In divinity, a neology is a comparatively new philosophy ( for illustration, rationalism ) . In this sense, a neologist is an pioneer in the country of a philosophy or belief system, and is frequently considered dissident or insurgent by the mainstream church.
The chief point in all these defenitions is that the word or significance is new and the deduction is that the word might be adopted by the society and take roots or ignored and shortly forgotten.
1.2 History and the development of neologies
As a literary construct and term, neology
appeared in the early eighteenth century, at the clip when the neoclassical patterns of the Gallic Generation of 1660 began to consolidate, throughout Europe, into a organic structure of normative instruction. The thought that different spheres of human experience should be represented in literature by distinguishable literary manners entailed the impression that each of these manners should run within distinguishable vocabulary. Use, i.e. , specific use of the & # 171 ; best Authors & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; the Court & # 187 ; , or & # 171 ; the City & # 187 ; , determined the bounds of this vocabulary, along with other grammatical and stylistic belongingss. Writers utilizing words and looks ( every bit good as phrase constructions ) from outside this existence were said to utilize neologies
, new looks. Critics of the clip conceived of neology
in literature as correspondent to the uninterrupted creative activity and debut of new lexical units into linguistic communication, and they thought of linguistic communication alteration in general as a procedure of decay. Thus neology
was condemned on both aesthetic and lingual evidences and the term was used pejoratively merely. This older significance of neology
, and the attitude it reflects, is still alive today.
However, every bit early as the 2nd half of the eighteenth century, it became obvious that the vocabulary of literary look should and possibly could non be to the full limited. Therefore pejororative neology
was given a ameliorating doublet, & # 171 ; neologism & # 187 ; which meant the debut of & # 171 ; approved & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; right & # 187 ; new words into linguistic communication. Critical literature has since expended a great trade of attempt to specify, non really successfully, the bounds of & # 171 ; neologism & # 187 ; , normally reasoning that the latter should be above all Horace ‘s licentia sumpta prudenter
, restricted to instances of & # 171 ; existent need & # 187 ; ( i.e. , for constructs for which no individual word or look exists in the linguistic communication ) and that new words should be correspondent in signifier to bing words in the linguistic communication. Since, nevertheless, there are an infinite figure of constructs an writer may wish to stand for in his authorship, or a talker, in his address, and since the vocabulary of most natural linguistic communications offers a really big figure of possible analogies, such puristic recommendations have ne’er succeeded in stemming the inflow of new words into linguistic communication, thence into literature.
The old significance of neology
is synonymous with & # 171 ; brutality & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; Gallicism & # 187 ; ( in English ) , & # 171 ; Anglicism & # 187 ; ( in French ) , and even & # 171 ; archaicism & # 187 ; . It is opposed to & # 171 ; purism & # 187 ; .
The modern, impersonal significance of neology
appears early in the nineteenth century and, still combated by Littr & # 233 ; in French, additions credence towards the terminal of the century. The enlargement of the literary experience by the Sentimentalists, the Realists, and the Naturalists, every bit good as the outgrowth of linguistics as an & # 171 ; nonsubjective & # 187 ; scientific discipline has contributed to this development & # 8211 ; Victor E. Hanzeli ( 37 ) .
1.3 Cultural credence
We can tag that neologisms tend to happen more frequently in civilizations which are quickly altering, and besides in state of affairss where there is easy and fast extension of information. They are frequently created by uniting bing words ( compound noun and adjectival ) or by giving words new and alone postfixs or prefixes
. Those which are blends are shortened. Neologisms can besides be created through abbreviation or acronym, by deliberately riming with bing words, or merely through playing with sounds.
As for the description of neologies, we can state that, a neology may be a slang word that has yet to happen its manner into mainstream conversation, or it may be the creative activity of a non-native talker who has made for illustration a grammatical mistake. The alleged faux pas of the lingua may besides be seen as neologies.
Neologisms frequently become popular by manner of mass media, the Internet, or word of mouth & # 8211 ; particularly, many linguists suspect, by younger people. Virtually every word in a linguistic communication was, at some clip, a neology, though most of these ceased to be such through clip and credence.
Neologisms frequently become recognized parts of the linguistic communication. Other times, nevertheless, they disappear from common use. Whether or non a neology continues as portion of the linguistic communication depends on many factors, likely the most of import of which is credence by the populace. Credence by lingual experts and incorporation into lexicons besides plays a portion, as does whether the phenomenon described by a neology remains current, therefore go oning to necessitate a form. It is unusual, nevertheless, for a word to come in common usage if it does non resemble another word or words in an identifiable manner. ( In some instances nevertheless, unusual new words win because the thought behind them is particularly memorable or exciting ) . When a word or phrase is no longer & # 171 ; new, & # 187 ; it is no longer a neology. Neologisms may take decennaries to go & # 171 ; old & # 187 ; , though. Opinions differ on precisely how old a word must be to no longer be considered a neology ; cultural credence likely plays a more of import function than clip in this respect.
If we consider the cultural credence, we can think, that after being coined, neologisms constantly undergo examination by the populace and by linguists to find their suitableness to the linguistic communication. Many are recognized really rapidly ; others attract resistance. Language experts sometimes object to a neology on the evidences that a suited term for the thing described already exists in the linguistic communication. Non-experts who dislike the neology sometimes besides use this statement, deriding the neology as & # 171 ; maltreatment and ignorance of the language. & # 187 ;
Some neologies, particularly those covering with sensitive topics, are frequently objected to on the evidences that they obscure the issue being discussed, and that such a word ‘s freshness frequently leads a treatment off from the root issue and onto a siding about the significance of the neology itself.
Advocates of a neology see it as being utile, and besides assisting the linguistic communication to turn and alteration ; frequently they perceive these words as being a merriment and originative manner to play with a linguistic communication. Besides, the semantic preciseness of most neologies, along with what is normally a straightforward sentence structure, frequently makes them easier to hold on by people who are non native talkers of the linguistic communication.
The result of these arguments, when they occur, has a great trade of influence on whether a neology finally becomes an recognized portion of the linguistic communication. Linguists may sometimes detain credence, for case by declining to include the neology in lexicons ; this can sometimes do a neology to decease out over clip. However if the populace continues to utilize the term, it ever finally sheds its position as a neology and enters the linguistic communication even over the expostulations of linguistic communication experts.
2. Wayss of forming words
and the analysis of 50 top neologies
2.1 Categorization of word-building agencies
As the purpose of our work is to look into the job of neologies, and ways of their forming, we will overview the word-building agencies. At first we will undertake the job of assorted categorizations of word-formation, linguists used to advert morphological, syntactic and lexico-semantic types of word-formation. At present the categorization of the types does non, as a regulation, include lexico-semantic word-building. Of involvement is the categorization of word-formation agencies based on the figure of actuating bases, which many bookmans follow. A differentiation is made between two big categories of word-building agencies:
To Class I
belong the agencies of edifice words holding one actuating base. To give an English illustration, the noun CATCHER is composed of the base CATCH & # 8211 ; and the postfix & # 8211 ; ER, through the combination of which it is morphologically and semantically motivated.
The basic means in word-derivation are affixation and transition. Derived words normally consist of a root and an affix, which in their bend autumn into prefixes which proceed the root in the construction of the word ( re-write, mis-pronounce ) and suffixes which follow the root ( teach-er, dict-ate ) . Derived words are highly popular in the English vocabulary. Successfully viing with this structural type is the alleged root word which has merely a root morpheme in its construction. This type widely represented by a great figure of words belonging to the original English word stock or to earlier adoptions ( house, book, work ) , and in Modern English, has been greatly enlarged by the type of word edifice, called transition
( picket, adj. & # 8211 ; to blanch, V ; to happen, v- a discovery, n. ) Conversion
sometimes is referred to as an affixless manner of word-building or even affixless derivation. Conversion is a procedure of making a new word from some bing one or by altering the class of a portion of address, the morphemic form of the original word staying unchanged. The new word has a significance which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easy associated with it. It has besides a new paradigm peculiar to its new class as a portion of address ( nurse, n. & # 8211 ; to nurse, V ) .
includes the agencies of edifice words incorporating more than one actuating base. Acerate leaf to state, they are all based on intensifying ( country-club, door & # 8211 ; hande ) .
This type of word edifice, in which new words are produced by uniting two or more roots, is one of the most productive types in Modern English, the other two are transition and affixation. Compounds, though surely fewer in measure than derived or root words, still represent one of the most typical and specific characteristics of English word-structure. Compounds
are non homogenous in construction. Traditionally three types are distinguished: impersonal, morphological, syntactic. In impersonal compounds the procedure of combination is relized without any linking elements, by a mere apposition of two roots ( shop-window, sleeping room, highboy ) . Morphologic compounds are fewer in figure. This type is non productive and it is repersented by words in which two componding roots are combined by a associating vowel or consonant ( Anglo & # 8211 ; Saxon, solon, handicraft ) ( 16, p. 105 ) In syntactic compounds we find a characteristic of a specifically English word-structure. These words are formed from sections of address, continuing in their construction legion hints of syntagmatic dealingss typical of address: articles, prepositions, adverbs, prepositions, as in lily-of-the-alley, goldbrick
. Syntactic dealingss and grammatical forms current in contemporary English can be traced in the constructions of such compound nouns as pick-me
-up, know-it-all, mystery
. In this group of compounds, we find a great figure of neologies, and whoduni
T is one of them. The construction of most compounds is crystalline, and it is clear that the beginning of these words is a simple word combination.
Most linguists in particular chapters and manuals devoted to English word-formation consider as the main procedures af English word formation affixation, transition and combination. Apart from these a figure of minor ways of organizing words such as back-fomation, sound interchange, typical emphasis, sound imitation, blending, niping and acronymy are traditionally referred to Word-formation. ( 26, p. 108 )
Some minor types of word-formation can non belong neither to word derivation nor to intensifying, as some words while shortening
, for illustration, can hold two bases, e.g. V-day
, some can hold one, e.g. lab
. The same ground can be applied to other minor types. We will non be rigorous and see them as minor word edifice agencies.
are produced in two different ways. The first is to do a new word signifier a syllable ( rarer two ) of the original word. The latter may lose its beginning ( as in phone
made from telephone
) , its stoping ( as in hols & # 8211 ; holydays
, ad & # 8211 ;
) or both the beginning and stoping ( as in flu-influenza
) . The 2nd manner of shortening is to do a new word signifier the initial letters ( similar to acronimy )
of a word group: U.N.O
. from the United Nations Organization
. This type is called initial shortenings and found non merely among colloquialisms and slang. So, g.f. is
a sawed-off word made from the compound girlfriend.
As a type of word-buildingshortening
of spoken words, besides calledcutting or
, is recorded in the English linguistic communication as far back as the 15 century. It has grown more and more productive of all time since. This growing becomes particularly marked in many European linguistic communications in the twentieth
century, and it is a affair of common cognition that this development is peculiarly intense in English.
Shortenings of spoken words or curtailment consists in the decrease of a word to one of its parts ( whether or non this portion has antecedently been a morpheme ) , as a consequence of which the new signifier acquires some lingual value of its ain.
Newly shortened words appear continuously: this is testified by legion neologies, such as demo
or electric refrigerator
. Many writers are inclined to overemphasise the function of & # 171 ; the strain of modern life & # 187 ; as the mainspring of this development. This is, evidently, merely one of grounds, and the strictly lingual factors should non be overlooked. Among the major forces are the demands of beat, which are more readily satisfied when the words are monosyllabic.
When covering with words of long continuance, one will besides observe that a high per centum of English shortenings is involved into the procedure of loan word assimilation. Monosyllabism goes further in English than in any other European linguistic communication, and that is why sawed-off words sound more like native 1s than their long paradigms.
The other word edifice agencies can be called:blends, blendings, mergers or blend
The procedure of formation is called telescoping, because the words seem to skid into one another similar subdivisions of a telescope. Blends may be defined as formations that combine two words and include the letters or sounds they have in common as a connecting component.
The analysis into immediate components is helpful so far as it permits the definition of a blend as a word with the first component represented by a root whose concluding portion may be losing, and the 2nd component by a root of which the initial portion is losing. The 2nd component, when used in a series of similar blends may turn into a postfix. A new postfix & # 8211 ; on
is, for case, good under manner in such footings as nylon, rayon, silon
, formed from the concluding component of cotton.
Depending upon paradigm phrases with which they can be correlative two types of blends can be distinguished. One may be termed linear, the 2nd, restrictive. ( 17, p. 76 ) The several type is convertible into an prenominal phrase where the first component serves as qualifier of the 2nd: cine ( matographic pano ) Rama & # 8211 ; cinerama
. Other illustrations are: Medicare & # 8211 ; medical attention, telecast & # 8211 ; telecasting broadcast.
Both types involve the skiding together non merely of sound but of significance every bit good. Yet the semantic dealingss, which are at work are different. The linear type is convertible into a phrase consisting of the several complete roots combined with the concurrence and, e.g. smog & # 8211 ; smoke
& # 8216 ; a mixture of fume and fog & # 8217 ; . The elements may be synonymous, belong to the same semantic field or at least be members of the same lexico-grammatical category of words: Gallic + English=Frenglish
Blends, although non really legion wholly, seem to be on the rise, particularly in nomenclature and besides in trade advertizements.
Another manner of organizing new words isacronymization
as for this procedure, we can state, that, because of of all time closer connexion between the unwritten and the written signifiers of the linguistic communication it is sometimes hard to distinguish cuttings formed in unwritten address from graphical abbreviations. They are going more employed in unwritten address and widely used in conversation.
During World War I and after it the usage became really popular non merely in English-speaking states, but in other parts of the universe every bit good, to name states, governmental, societal, military, industrial and trade organisations and functionaries non merely by their full rubrics but by initial abbreviations derived from composing. Subsequently the tendency became even more marked ; e.g. the USSR, the U.N.O. , MP. The inclination was to exclude fullstops between the letters: GPO ( General Post Organization ) . Some abbreviations however appear in both signifiers: EPA and E.P.A. ( Environmental Protection Agency ) . Such words formed from the initial missive of each of the consecutive parts of a phrasal term have two possible types of orthoepic correlativity between written and spoken signifiers.
Ifthe abbreviated written signifier lends itself to be read as though it were an ordinary English word and sounds like an English word, it will be read like one. The words therefore formed are calledacronyms
from GREEK acros & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ;
terminal & # 8217 ; +onym & # 8216 ;
name & # 8217 ; ) .
This manner of organizing new words is going more and more popular in about all Fieldss of human activity, and particularly in political and proficient vocabulary: U.N.O. , besides UNO ( ju: nou ) & # 8211 ; United Nations Organization
, NATO & # 8211 ; the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
, SALT & # 8211 ; Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
. The last illustration shows that acronyms are frequently homonymic to ordinary words: sometimes deliberately chosen so as to make certain associations. Therefore, for illustration, the National organisation for Women is called NOW. Typical of acronymous mintages in proficient nomenclature are JATO, optical maser, radio detection and ranging.
Acronyms present a particular involvement because they exemplify the working of the lexical adaptive system. ( 17, p. 143 )
As forsemantic word & # 8211 ; edifice
, we can state, that it is any alteration in word & # 8211 ; significance, for case the word bench & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ;
a long place of wood or rock & # 8217 ; ; & # 8216 ; a carpenter tabular array & # 8217 ; . The bulk of the linguists, nevertheless, understand this procedure merely as a alteration in the significance of a word that may ensue in the visual aspect of homonyms, as is the instance with flower & # 8211 ; & # 171 ; a flower & # 187 ; and flour & # 8211 ; : the all right repast & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; pulverization made form wheat and used for doing bread & # 187 ; , etc. The application of the term word-formation to the visual aspect of homonyms due to the development of lexical ambiguity seems to be problematic for the undermentioned grounds:
As semantic alteration does non, as a regulation, lead to the inroduction of a new word into the vocabulary, it can barely be regarded as a word-building agencies ( neither can we see the procedure a word-building means even when an existent enlargment ) , the vocabulary does come about through the visual aspect of a brace of homonyms. Actually, the visual aspect of homonyms is non a agency of making new words, but it is the concluding consequence of a long and arduous procedure of sense-development. Furthermore, there are no forms after which homonyms can be made in the linguistic communication. Finally, diverging sense-development consequences in a semantic isolation of two or more significances of a word, whereas the procedure of word-formation proper is characterized by a certain semantic connexion between the new
word and the beginning lexical unit. For these grounds diverging sense-development taking to the visual aspect of two or more homonyms should be regarded as a specific channel through which the vocabulary of a linguistic communication is replenished with new words and should non be treated on a par with the procedures of word-formation, such as affixation, transition and composing.
2.2 Productivity of Word-building agencies
Some of the ways of organizing new words in present & # 8211 ; twenty-four hours English can be resorted to for the creative activity of new words whenever the juncture demands & # 8211 ; these are called productive ways of organizing words. Other ways of organizing words can non bring forth new words as readily and these are normally termed non-productive or unproductive. For case, affixation has been a productive manner of organizing new words of all time since the Old English period, whereas, sound-interchange must hold been at one clip a productive word-building agencies but in Modern English its map is really merely to separate between different categories and signifiers of words.
The high productiveness of transition
finds its contemplation in address where legion occasional instances of transition can be found, which are non registered in lexicons and which occur momently, through the immediate demand of state of affairs. ( 16, p. 90 ) Conversion is universally accepted as one of the major ways of enriching English vocabulary with new words.
It follows that productiveness of word-building ways, single derivational forms and derivational affixes is understood as their ability of doing new words which all who speak English find no trouble in understanding, in peculiar their ability to make what is calledoccasional words or nonce-words (
more unstable, function theimmediate intent as compared to neologies, but the boundary line is really little ).
The term means that the talker coins such words when he needs them, if on another juncture the same word is needed once more, he coins it afresh. Acerate leaf to state lexicons do non as a regulation record occasonal words. The undermentioned words may function as illustration: collarless ( visual aspect ) , a Dickensish ( office ) , to unlearn ( the regulations ) , etc.
Recent probes seem to turn out nevertheless that productiveness of derivational agencies is comparative in many respects. Furthermore there are no perfectly productive agencies, derivational forms and derivational affixes have different grades of productiveness. Each portion of address is characterized by a set of productive derivational forms, peculiar to it. Three grades of productiveness are distinguished for derivational forms and single derivational affixes: 1 ) highly-productive, 2 ) productive or semi & # 8211 ; productive and 3 ) non-productive.
( 26, p. 112 ) By productive affixes we mean the 1s, which take portion in deriveng new words at this peculiar period of linguistic communication development. The best manner to indentify productive affixes is to look for them among time being words.
They are normally formed on the degree of life address and reflect the most productive and progressive forms in word edifice. One should non blend the productiveness of affixes with their frequence of happening. There are rather a figure of high-frequency affixes which, however, are no longer used in word derivation ( the adjective-foming native postfixs & # 8211 ; ful, & # 8211 ; ly
; the adjective-forming postfixs of Latin beginning & # 8211 ; emmet, & # 8211 ; Al
which are rather frequent ) .
As for intensifying, we can state that the structural type of compound words and the word-building type of composing have certain advantages for communicating intents. Composition is non rather so flexible ( productive ) a manner of coining new as transition but flexible plenty to make legion time being words. These words are relatively crisp, absorbing into one word an thought that otherwise would hold required a whole phrase ( californium. The hotel was full of week-enders
and The hotel was full of people passing the week-end there
) . ( 16, p. 20 )
We should besides advert the ground why such word edifice ways as shortening, acronyms and blendings are so productive. It can be explained by their brevity and it is due to the ever-increasing pacing of modern life. In run intoing the demands of communicating and carry throughing the Torahs of information theory necessitating a maximal signal in the minimal clip the lexical system undergoes alteration in its basic construction: viz. it forms new elements non by their combine bing morphemes and continuing from sound signifiers to their in writing representation but the other manner round & # 8211 ; coining new words form the initial letters of phrasal footings arising in texts. ( 17, p. 144 )
2.3 The overview of the beginnings of neologies
In our work, we are determined to specify the word-building agencies of the new word and the domain of its usage, we have presented the major types of word organizing manner and have mentioned some domains where they can be used and their cultural credence. The top 50 neologies were taken from the WORDSPY site.
We think it necessary to show the overview of the beginnings, where the information on neologies can be taken. As it was said by & # 8211 ; Andrew Lloyd James, ( Welsh linguist, The Broadcast Word, 1935 ) : & # 171 ; A linguistic communication is ne’er in a province of arrested development, but is ever altering ; we are non looking at a lantern-slide but at a traveling picture. & # 187 ; As English is a turning linguistic communication new words and phrases emerge mundane at a gait that the Oxford English Dictionary
and the Webster ‘s
can non maintain up with. While these lexicons wait for old ages before they consider words ‘fit to print ‘ , the Web is working faster to convey these new footings to visible radiation.
is one of the largest sites maintaining path of emerging vocabulary of the English linguistic communication. It is maintained by Paul McFedries
, writer of many computing machine and English linguistic communication books. New footings are added to the site on a regular basis.
Back in 1996, Wordspy began as a mailing list where each twenty-four hours McFedries would direct out an interesting word to a few friends and readers. & # 171 ; After I ‘d accumulated a few twelve words, I created the site to give people a record of what had been posted and do it possible for other people to fall in the list, & # 187 ; says McFedries.
Many new words may go family footings in a few old ages. Some of them are here merely for a short piece. McFedries describes linguistic communication as volcanic mountain invariably spiting out new words and phrases. & # 171 ; Some of them are blown off by the air currents and others are lingual lava that slides down the vent and finally hardens as a lasting portion of the linguistic communication. Both types of ejecta are inherently originative, so I ‘m interested in them every bit, & # 187 ; he explains.
He finds most of these words through his ain reading. For the commendations, he uses Lexis-Nexis
, Dow Jones News Retrieval
and Electric Library. He besides uses Google
and his local library.
Harmonizing to him, new words are a contemplation of what ‘s traveling on in the civilization. & # 171 ; For illustration, if the civilization is bring forthing new footings such as ‘work-life balance
‘ , ‘joy-to-stuff ratio
‘ , and ‘affluenza
‘ , to me it ‘s an indicant that a important figure of people are looking to decelerate down and unrecorded simpler, less mercenary lives. & # 187 ;
Wordspy has given emerging words a new life. It even provides an updated list of words and looks that ‘s non yet in the Oxford English Dictionary.
‘ is a nounand means ‘a rich individual whose wealth is based on the stocks he owns at Dell Computer Corporation ‘ . An ‘Internot
‘ ( noun ) is a individual who refuses to utilize the Internet.
McFedries calls Wordspy ‘lexpionage ‘ ( a word he coined himself ) , the detection of new words and of old words used in new ways. His favourite word is evidently ‘logophilia
‘ , the love of words.
There are about 2000 words and looks in this aggregation. Every term has a page dedicated to it. This page has all the information of the word or look: the figure of address, what the word means, its use, commendations and a backgrounder. Earliest known use of some words is besides included. In some instances, history about the entry is besides provided.
2.4 The top 50 neolosisms and their analysis
We present the top 50 neologies in the undermentioned tabular array, the information is collected on the fifth
of February, 2004 on Wordspy site.
Now we present the tabular array, where words are arranged harmonizing the popularity foremost of all, the earliest commendation, the short definition, the word-building type, the domain of use are presented.
We had 50 most often used neologies to look into at our disposal, it is clear that it is merely a little part of new coined words we could utilize, but for the convenience and the truth of the analysis merely these words were taken. Nevertheless, even these words can motivate us about the modern-day procedures in the linguistic communication, and we can separate the most productive ways of new words to look and the chief domains where they are needed. We can find the major tendencies in the neologism every bit good.
Culture & # 8211 ; General-11, Food and Drink -2, Television-2, Health and Fitness-3.
Sociology & # 8211 ; General-22, Gay and Lesbian-3, Pregnancy and Parenting -5, Men and Women-9,
Computers & # 8211 ; General-5, Internet & # 8211 ; 6, Choping and Hackers-3, Wareless-3, E-mail-3
Technology & # 8211 ; General-3, Cell Phones-4
The World & # 8211 ; Crime-3, General -1, Politics -3,
Science & # 8211 ; General-4, Biology-2, Psychology-4
Business & # 8211 ; General-2, Money -1
Language & # 8211 ; General-4
Word edifice agencies is the first thing we will make research into analysing the chart of the most popular neologies. Harmonizing to it we can tag that the word composing and sense development are the most productive ways of coining new words. Harmonizing to structural types of words, two motivation bases are employed while organizing words by word composing. For case, the word neurotheology
has two clear bases, they are neuro & # 8211 ;
and & # 8211 ; divinity.
Judging by the consequence it & # 8217 ; s the most common manner as is & # 8216 ; the easiest & # 8217 ; , every bit shortly as you use the already existing words and set them together.
Sense development is employed when a new significance is acquired by the already bing word, that is what we call semantic word edifice type. In the age of globalisation, developed societal links and high-tech events, world demands names for them and there is a large figure of such instances, as in the word quiet party
along with the word composing, this type is used, words ( complexs of the word ) are normally known, but while analysing we can clearly see that sense development is engaged to coin this neology.
Blending is less popular, instances, like hathos,
the blend of hatred
Such types as affixation, acronimization ( kippers
& # 8211 ; from & # 171 ; childs in parents ‘ pockets gnawing retirement nest eggs & # 187 ; ) turned out to be non really productive. It can be explained by assorted grounds & # 8211 ; 1 ) amplification in forming, 2 ) trouble in foretelling ( decrypting ) the information.
It is clear that more than 40 % of the neologies appeared in the 1890ss, it can be explained by the sudden leap in computing machine engineerings and the more apparent consequences of the sexual revolution. In the 1880ss, 24 % of the new words were coined, that was more or less a stable period of the modern-day society. As for the 2000 & # 8211 ; 2004, for this period more than 36 % of the neologies were built. That is the richest period, as the advancement became faster, every bit good as, the clip itself.
It & # 8217 ; s the first clip new words were fixed in newspapers. Such yellow journalisms, as The INDEPENDENT ( London ) , Chicago TRIBUNE, THE WASHINGTON POST, The AUSTRALIAN, CANADIAN Issues are the productive beginnings. The Internet sites give birth to the legion words which deal with engineerings, for case, the esato.com gave life to the word BLUEJACKING. Not merely English speech production states yellow journalisms are among the beginnings, THE JERUSALEM POST & # 171 ; dullard & # 187 ; the floortime
, etc. Some other local newspapers like THE DENVER POST, FLORIDA TIMES, THE TORONTO STAR, THE NATION, etc. can besides be called the beginnings. Issues, discussed at conferences ( Digital Rights Management Conference ) can be the grounds for the new words visual aspect ( darknet
) every bit good.
With the development of the society and the sexual revolution, which is still traveling on, new signifiers of dealingss between sexes and within household, new types of sex societal position appeared. This domain has got more new impressions than of all time before, since now people can easy alter their sex and sexual orientation ( homosexual and sapphic subject ) . Gaydar
( an interesting composing Gay+ Dar
, denoting a particular sense while placing homosexual from a consecutive individual ) or consecutive supermacist
( a individual who assumes that all straight persons are innately superior than homophiles and they don & # 8217 ; t have the right to be every bit treated under the jurisprudence ) Furthermore, there are new types of household signifiers and dealingss which explains the visual aspect of words, such as manny & # 8211 ;
is a clear instance in point.
Work force and adult females links are besides of involvement, & # 188 ; of all new impressions ( harmonizing to our probe ) make up in this domain. Cranky Male Syndrome
( -anger and irritableness in work forces caused by a sudden bead in testosterone degrees, peculiarly when brought on by emphasis or the word ) work forces chests
( extra fatty tissue that causes a adult male ‘s thorax to resemble a adult female ‘s chests ) show us how work forces begin to resemble a adult female more and more, physically and psychologically. Or take for illustration, a metrosexual
single, who spends much money on his visual aspect and life style.
The 2nd richest subdivision is Computer.
New computing machine engineerings give rise to new words. Most of them are connected with the Internet and E & # 8211 ; mail, as the Internet offers us more and more chances, every bit good as, all computing machine engineerings. Software in many people & # 8217 ; s life-time has been largely a fantastic manner to populate, because we ‘re merely larning how to make it and anybody with some clip and endowment and enterprise can seek out any brainsick thought. We have so much processing power and so much memory and such great tools and we still fail, most times, to bring forth things that are fun to utilize. Neologisms like, GOOGLE, & # 171 ; spIM
& # 187 ; became an indispensable portion of Internet users & # 8217 ; address. One can google
and happen any information he or she needs and the other gets spIM
every clip he or she uses Instantaneous Messenger.
Culture sphere is developing along with the society, that is why it is the 3rd richest. Television
and nutrient and drink
subdivisions have more fresh words, than of all time now, and once more, it is connected with the technological and societal development. Persons suffer from inactive over-eating
, that is the inordinate feeding of nutrients that are high in fat because the human organic structure is slow to acknowledge the thermal content of rich nutrients ; eating whatever is put in forepart of you, even to the point of uncomfortableness. The land for it all is the alteration of the life beat & # 8211 ; deficit of clip.
Science is the Forth richest, new scientific disciplines and finds are made in this sphere & # 8211 ; that is neurotheology,
and The universe
hold the equal figure, in the Technology subdivision, more than a half of all new words are connected with cell phones. The bulk of civilised people have & # 171 ; cellys & # 187 ; to salvage clip and money. Some have jobs with BLUEJACKING
while standing in a line in the supermarket ( temporally commandeering another individual & # 8217 ; s cell phone by directing anonymousmessages utilizing the Bluetooth system ) . Or one can do 911 butt call
, that is decidedly is non deserving reacting to.
Business and linguistic communication are less influenced, these domains are more or less stable, concern
& # 8211 ; is because it is the affair of money. Market succeeds in making huge measures of ( unevenly distributed ) wealth, raising people out of rural poorness and urban slums, in set uping that most people have occupations, that most things that are built that are needed, and the most things that are needed are built. These are non little achievements. Besides, it can be marked that concern is frequently a foul pattern. It encourages both despicable venial and monstrous person wickedness, wholly as an organic effect of the competitory market place. That explains our statistics, we have three new words, connected with this subject, and one of them trades with offense & # 8211 ; 419 cozenage ( fraud, doing people pay money, which hope to acquire more subsequently, the Numberss & # 171 ; 419 & # 187 ; is the figure of the jurisprudence, prosecuting this type of a offense ) . The other word trades with the stock market & # 8211 ; dead cat bounciness ( a impermanent recovery from a major bead in a stock ‘s monetary value ) .
is the domain which is truly flexible and prone to alterations, but still people need more or less stable linguistic communication system to pass on. New words in this sphere are kippers
( an acronym ) and himbo
( an abuse ) or hathos (
feelings of pleasance derived from detesting person or something ) , they are a rare instance in point.
As we can see 18 out of 50 words have new signifiers, some of the new-coined words have developed a paradigm of even three parts of address, some merely 1. In most instances words have a noun as another portion of address, like in words neurotheology
, the new signifier is neurotheologian
or metrosexual & # 8211 ; metrosexuality,
besides consecutive supremacist & # 8211 ; straight domination
. As for making the adjectives, we have such illustrations, as hathos & # 8211 ; hathotic,
or spim & # 8211 ; antispim
and lipstick sapphic & # 8211 ;
with a postfix & # 8211 ; Intelligence Community
Verbs are besides common: bluejacking & # 8211 ; to bluejack, manscaping & # 8211 ; to manscape, blink mob-to flash rabble.
Neologisms like, spim, flash
are the brightest representatives to demo how productive the words can be, they have a noun, a verb, an adjectival and even they have a plural signifier & # 8211 ; flash rabble
, for illustration. Few words have a plural signifier. These facts show that while talking sometimes people have to discourse words into a different portion of address. The bigger paradigm of morphological signifiers the word develops the more chance it will hold to last for a piece and even remain in the linguistic communication. The ground for this event is that these new impressions every bit good as words are bit by bit going the indispensable portion of the civilised universe.
Harmonizing to our statistics, most words get a new significance instead than a new word appears with a new impression. This can be explained by the fact, that there is non plenty, we would state proper, words to show all the assortment of freshly created and used impressions in the quickly changing universe.
New significance were acquired when two ( as it may look ) incompatible words are composed and a new word appears. For case, words like, quiet party or planetary
diping, clip erotica
were non of primary importance, furthermore, there were non used and were non existent, if we take for illustration, the 1970ss or 1880ss of the twentieth
century. These things merely did non be, or were non popular to the same extent as they are now. Or the word does non alter at all, merely the new significance is implied & # 8211 ; kidnap.
As for the coincident new impressions and words creative activity, we can observe, that they were created whether by acronimization ( kipper )
or blending ( pomosexual, hathos
) , those are the most productive and the simplest ways to connote two or more significances, showing some fresh thoughts, in one word.
In our work, we tried to give a full presentation if all facets of such a lingual event as neologism in connexion with word edifice agencies. We performed a complete analysis of 50 most popular neologies harmonizing to the word edifice type, sphere of use, to the beginning and clip of visual aspect, ability to make new signifiers, new impression visual aspect.
As a literary construct and term, neology appeared in the 18th
century and its old significance was synonymous to & # 171 ; brutality & # 187 ; . In the modern significance of neology appeared early in the 19th
century and, gained the credence towards the terminal of the century. Nowadays around 4000 words enter English vocabulary every twelvemonth which reflects the fast development of the linguistic communication and makes the phenomena interesting to analyse.
We besides tackled a job of the cultural credence. There is no standard for judging how long the neology takes to be accepted by the populace. If it does, it is non the point though, because the ground why it becomes recognized is of more importance.
The categorization of word edifice means besides presented in our probe, based on the structural rule ( one or two motivation bases ) in the first topographic point. The words which have one motivation base are normally formed by derivation
with the aid of affixes and zero-derivation ( transition ) ,
which is the procedure of turning a word in a different portion of address and with a different distribution feature but without adding any derivational component ( n. silence & # 8211 ;
v. to hush
) . The 2nd type of word edifice means employs two motivation bases ( intensifying
) , which is a convenient and crisp manner to show some thoughts, comprised in one word. Minor types of word edifice include shortening, acronymy, blending.
Shortening that consists in the decrease of a word to one of its parts, as a consequence the new signifier acquires some lingual value of its ain, blends that combine two words and include the letters or sounds they have in common as a connecting component. Acronymy is the procedure of making new words when merely initial letters are taken. These above mentioned agencies are often used in the domain of engineering and political relations every bit good as mundane linguistic communication ( girlfriend & # 8211 ; g.f. )
, the ground is ever-growing life beat, when maximal information should be transferred in a minimal clip, the described types are the most suited in this instance, which besides explains their high productiveness. The semantic word edifice, which is any semantic alteration in the word significance, it deals with sense development, and can be besides treated as one of the beginnings of neologies.
Recent probes seem to turn out that productiveness of derivational agencies is comparative in many chances, and as a decision we can state that there are no perfectly productive agencies. Conversion is popular due to its simpleness and convenience ; one doesn & # 8217 ; Ts have to add any affixes to make a new word.
In our work we besides dealt with jobs refering the beginnings of new words as neologisms emerge every twenty-four hours and so fast that lexicons can non maintain up with. While the lexicons wait for old ages for the words to be fit to be published, the World Wide Web is moving more expeditiously to convey these words to life. Wordspy ( Godhead Paul McFedries ) is one of the largest sites maintaining path of emerging vocabulary of the English linguistic communication. We used the information from this site to analyse ( 50 most popular ( often used ) neology ) , collected in February 2004.
We took these words to find the major tendencies in the turning vocabulary ; the words were analyzed harmonizing to
– the beginning and clip of visual aspect,
– to the word edifice type,
– to the domain of use,
– to the ability to make new words,
– to the new impression visual aspect.
The period, which is rich in neologisms, is the 1890ss, due to rapid alteration in societal dealingss and high-tech developments. But as the procedures became faster, more new words were coined, the & # 171 ; richest & # 187 ; ( 36 % ) clip ( at the beginning of the Twenty-one century. The major beginning is Media, yellow journalisms every bit good as locals, in peculiar ( The Independent, The Washington Post ) . The Internet besides plays a deciding function in organizing new words.
Most neologies in our work were formed whether by word composing or sense development ( more than 80 % ) , which are the & # 8216 ; easiest & # 8217 ; , as one doesn & # 8217 ; Ts have to contrive anything new, merely uniting two words together or connoting a new significance to an old word. Minor word edifice types ( blending, acronimization ) are less employed. That happens due to the flash-like beat of modern life.
While analysing domains of use, we came to such a decision, that the most, as we can state, renewable subdivision is that of sociology
( 45 referencesout of 113 ) , as it is the most underdeveloped domain of the human life at this point. A great figure of the new words trade with work forces and adult females relationships, every bit good as, with homosexual personal businesss, as a consequence of the sexual revolution.
The more active use of the computing machine and computing machine engineerings ( 20 mentions out of 113 ) give rise to more new words connected with this subject, the same can be applied to the mobile/cell phones, they are more employed and therefore hold more maps, which consequences in the visual aspect of new words.
We can besides think that the bigger figure of neology has paradigms ( 36 % ) , that shows & # 8211 ; the words are more employed and are being accepted by the linguistic communication.
More words merely get new significance ; as a consequence, a new word is born ( 46 % ) . The & # 8216 ; old & # 8217 ; words were non used in a present significance, due to its old non & # 8211 ; necessity.
As a entire issue, we can tag, that the expansion of the English linguistic communication vocabulary, every bit good as any other linguistic communication, is closely connected with the worlds & # 8217 ; societal life. Every new event in our life finds its contemplation in the linguistic communication, and the faster the life is the simpler the ways, thanks to which our linguistic communication is enlarged.
1. & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1058 ; . & # 1048 ; . & # 1051 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1052 ; . : & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; . 1977.
2. & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1048 ; . & # 1042 ; . & # 1051 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1052 ; . : & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; . 1986.
3. & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1048 ; . & # 1042 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1052 ; . : & # 1055 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; . 1983.
4. & # 1040 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1054 ; . & # 1057 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1052 ; . : & # 1057 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1101 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; . 1996.
5. & # 1043 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1048 ; . & # 1056 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1052 ; . : & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; . 1977.
6. & # 1047 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1042 ; . & # 1048 ; . & # 1053 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1052 ; . : & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; . 1989.
7. & # 1050 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1040 ; . & # 1050 ; . & # 1059 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; . & # 1053 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; : & # 1048 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1043 ; & # 1055 ; & # 1048 ; . 2002.
8. & # 1051 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1041 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; ? & # 1052 ; . : & # 171 ; & # 1064 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 8211 ; & # 1055 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 187 ; . 1998.
9. & # 1052 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1057 ; . & # 1048 ; . & # 1051 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1053 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; : & # 1048 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1043 ; & # 1055 ; & # 1048 ; . 2003.
10. & # 1052 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1051 ; . & # 1040 ; & # 171 ; English through the History of the British People & # 187 ; . & # 1056 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; : & # 1056 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; . & # 1057 ; . & # 1040 ; . & # 1045 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; . 1998.
11. & # 1052 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1042 ; . & # 1057 ; . Dictionary of slang in North America, Great Britain and Australia. & # 1052 ; . : & # 171 ; & # 1060 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; , 2002.
12. & # 1057 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1040 ; . & # 1048 ; . & # 1051 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1