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& # 1052 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1056 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1059 ; & # 1050 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1059 ; & # 1050 ; & # 1056 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1031 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1048 ;

& # 1063 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1056 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1062 ; & # 1068 ; & # 1050 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1049 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1062 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1051 ; & # 1068 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1049 ; & # 1059 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1056 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1058 ;

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& # 1110 ; & # 1084 ; . & # 1070 ; & # 1056 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1071 ; & # 1060 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1044 ; & # 1068 ; & # 1050 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1063 ; & # 1040 ;

& # 1060 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1050 ; & # 1059 ; & # 1051 ; & # 1068 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1058 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1030 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1047 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1052 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1061 ; & # 1052 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1042 ;

The chief discrepancies of the English linguistic communication

& # 1063 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1110 ; 2011

Plan

General Characteristics of the English Language in Different Parts of the English-Speaking World

Lexical Differences of Territorial Discrepancies

Some Points of History of the Territorial Variants and Lexical interchange between them

Local Discrepancies in the British Isles and in the USA

The Relationship between the English National linguistic communication and British Local Dialects

Local Dialects in the USA

Decisions

Mentions

Dictionary

General Characteristics of the English Language in Different Parts of the English-Speaking World

It is natural that the English linguistic communication is non used with uniformity in the British Isles and in Australia, in the USA and -in New Zealand, in Canada and in India, etc. The English linguistic communication besides has some distinctive features in Wales, Scotland, in other parts of the British Isles and America. Is the nature of these assortments the same?

Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial discrepancies of a national linguistic communication and local idioms. Discrepancies of a linguistic communication are regional assortments of a standard literary linguistic communication characterized by some minor distinctive features in the sound system, vocabulary and by their ain literary norms. Dialects are assortments of a linguistic communication used as a agency of unwritten communicating in little vicinities, they are set off ( more or less aggressively ) from other assortments by some typical characteristics of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary.

Close review of the assortments mentioned above reveals that they are basically different in character. It is non hard to set up that the assortments spoken in little countries are local idioms. The position of the other assortments is more hard to set up.

It is over half a century already that the nature of the two chief discrepancies of the English linguistic communication, British and American ( Br and AE ) has been discussed. Some American linguists, H. L. Mencken for one, radius of two separate linguistic communications with a steady inundation of lingual influence foremost ( up to about 1914 ) from Britain to America, and since so from America to the British Isles. They even proclaim that the American influence on British English is so powerful that there will come a clip when the American criterion will be established in Britain. Other linguists regard the linguistic communication of the USA as a idiom of English.

Still more questionable is the place of Australian English ( AuE ) and Canadian English ( CnE ) .

The differences between the English linguistic communication every bit spoken in Britain, the USA, Australia and Canada are instantly noticeable in the field of phonetics. However these differentiations are confined to the articulatory-acoustics features of some phonemes, to some differences in the usage of others and to the differences in the beat and modulation of address. The few phonemes characteristic of American pronunciation and foreigner to British literary norms can as a regulation be observed in British idioms.

The fluctuations in vocabulary, to be considered below, are non really legion. Most of them are divergencies in the semantic construction of words and in their use.

The unsimilarities in grammar like AE gotten, proven for BE got, proved are scarce. For the most portion these unsimilarities consist in the penchant of this or that grammatical class or signifier to some others. For illustration, the penchant of Past Indefinite to Present Perfect, the formation of the Future Tense with will as the lone subsidiary verb for all individuals, and some others. Recent probes have besides shown that the Present Continuous signifier in the significance of Future is used twice every bit often in BE as in the American, Canadian and Australian discrepancies ; infinitive buildings are used more seldom in AE than in BE and AuE and inactive buildings are, on the contrary, more frequent in America than in Britain and in Australia.

Since BE, AE and AuE have basically the same grammar system, phonic system and vocabulary, they can non be regarded as different linguistic communications. Nor can they be referred to local idioms ; because they serve all domains of verbal communicating in society, within their territorial country they have dialectal differences of their ain ; besides they differ far less than local idioms ( e.g. far less than the idioms of Dewsbury and Howden, two English ” towns in Yorkshire some 40 stat mis apart ) . Another consideration is that AE has its ain literary norm and AuE is developing one. Thus we must talk of three discrepancies of the English national linguistic communication holding different accepted literary criterions, one spoken in the British Isles, another spoken in the USA, the 3rd in Australia. As to CnE, its distinctive features began to pull lingual attending merely some 20 old ages ago. The fragmental nature of the observation available makes it impossible to find its position.

Lexical Differences of Territorial Variants Lexical Differences of Territorial Discrepancies

Talking about the lexical differentiations between the territorial discrepancies, of the English linguistic communication it is necessary to indicate out that from the point of position of their modern currency in different parts of the English-speaking universe all lexical units may be divided into general English, those common to all the discrepancies and 1ocally-marked, those specific to contemporary use in one of the discrepancies and non found in the others ( i.e. Briticisms, Americanisms, Australianisms, Canadianisms, -etc. ) .

When talking about the territorial differences of the English linguistic communication philologues and lexicologists normally note the fact that different discrepancies of English use different words for the same objects. Therefore in depicting the lexical differences between the British and American discrepancies they provide long lists of word braces like

Be

level

resistance

lorry

paving

station

tin-opener

authorities

leader

AE

flat

metro

truck

pavement

mail

can-opener

disposal

column

module

learning staff

From such lists one may deduce that the words in the left column are the equivalents of those given in the right column and used on the other side of the Atlantic. But the affair is non every bit simple as that.

These braces present rather different instances.

It is merely in some rare instances like tin-opener & # 8212 ; can-opener or fishwife & # 8212 ; fish-dealer that the members of such braces are semantically tantamount.

In braces like authorities & # 8212 ; disposal, leader & # 8212 ; editorial merely one lexical semantic discrepancy of one of the members is locally-marked. Therefore in the first brace the lexical semantic discrepancy of disposal & # 8212 ; ‘the executive functionaries of a authorities ‘ is an Americanism, in the 2nd brace the word leader in the significance of ‘leading article in a newspaper ‘ is a Anglicism.

In some instances a impression may hold two synonymous appellations used on both sides of the Atlantic ocean, but one of them is more frequent in Britain, the other & # 8212 ; in the USA. Therefore in the braces station & # 8212 ; mail, timetable & # 8212 ; agenda, notice & # 8212 ; bulletin the first word is more frequent in Britain, the 2nd & # 8212 ; in America. So the difference here lies merely in word-frequency.

Most locally-marked lexical units belong to partial Briticisms, Americanisms, etc. , that is they are typical of this or that variant merely in one or some of their significances. Within the semantic construction of such words one may frequently happen significances belonging to general English, Americanisms and Briticisms, e.g. , in the word paving, the significance ‘street or route covered with rock, asphalt, concrete, etc is an Americanism, the significance ‘paved way for walkers at the side of the route ‘ is a Briticism ( the corresponding American look is sidewalk ) , the other two significances ‘the covering of the floor made of level blocks of wood, rock, etc. ‘ and ‘soil ‘ ( geol. ) are general English. Very frequently the significances that belong to general English are common and impersonal, cardinal, direct, while the Americanisms are conversational, fringy and nonliteral, e.g. shoulder & # 8212 ; general English & # 8212 ; ‘the joint linking the arm or forelimb with the organic structure ‘ , Americanism & # 8212 ; ‘either border of a route or main road ‘ .

There are besides some full Briticisms, Americanisms. For illustration, the words fortnight, pillar-box are full Briticisms, campus, mailboy are full Americanisms, outback, backblocks are full Australianisms.

These may be subdivided into lexical units denoting some realia that have no opposite numbers elsewhere ( such as the Americanism junior high school ) and those denoting phenomena discernible in other English-speaking states but expressed at that place in a different manner ( e.g. campus is defined in British lexicons as ‘grounds of a school or college ‘ ) . The figure of lexical units denoting some realia holding no opposite numbers in the other English-speaking states is considerable in each discrepancy. To these we may mention, for illustration, lexical units refering to such domains of life as vegetations and zoologies ( e.g. AuE kangaroo, kaola, warrigal, gum-tree ) , names of schools of acquisition ( e.g. junior high school and senior high school in AE or composite high school in CnE ) , names of things of mundane life, frequently connected with curious national conditions, traditions and imposts ( e.g. AuE throwing stick, AE drug-store, CnE float-house ) . But it is non the lexical units of this sort that can be considered separating characteristics of this or that discrepancy. As the lexical units are the lone means of showing the impressions in inquiry in the English linguistic communication some of them have become common belongings of the full English-speaking community ( as, e.g. , drug-store, lightning rod, super-market, babysitter that extended from AE, or the hockey footings that originated in Canada ( body-check, red-line, puck-carrier, etc. ) ; others have even become international ( as the former Americanisms motel, lynch, emancipationist, wireless, cybernetics, telephone, anaesthesia, or the former Australianisms warrigal, kangaroo and cockatoo ) .

The legion locally-marked slangisms, professionalisms and dialectisms can non be considered separating characteristics either, since they do non belong to the literary linguistic communication.

Less obvious, yet non less of import, are the regional differences of another sort, the alleged derivational discrepancies of words, holding the same root and indistinguishable in lexical significance though differing in derivational affixes ( e.g. BE acclimate & # 8212 ; AE acclimatise, BE aluminium & # 8212 ; AE aluminium ) .

Sometimes the derivational fluctuation embraces several words of the same word-cluster. Compare, for illustration, the derived functions of race ( division of world ) in British and American English:

BE racial/racialist a, racist N, racism N

AE racialist a, racialist N, racialism/racism N

When talking about the territorial lexical divergencies it is non sufficient to convey into comparing separate words, it is necessary to compare lexico-semantic groups of words or synonymic sets, to analyze the dealingss within these groups and sets, because on the one manus a different figure of members in a lexico-semantic group is connected with a different semantic construction of its members, on the other manus even undistinguished alterations in the semantic construction of a word bring about touchable difference in the construction of the lexico-semantic group to which the word belongs.

For illustration, the British and Australian discrepancies have different sets of words denoting inland countries: merely inland is common to both, besides BE has interior, remote, etc. , AuE has bush, outback, backblocks, back of beyond, back of Bourke and many others.

Consequently, the semantic construction of the word shrub and its place in the two discrepancies are wholly different: in BE it has one cardinal significance ( ‘shrub ‘ ) and several derived 1s, some of which are now disused, in AuE it has two semantic Centres ( ‘wood ‘ and ‘inland countries ‘ ) that embracing five chief and four derived significances.

Lexical distinctive features in different parts of the English-speaking universe are non merely those in vocabulary, to be disposed of in an alphabetical list, they besides concern the really manner of utilizing words. For case, the grammatical valency of the verb to force is much narrower in AuE, than in BE and AE ( e.g. in this discrepancy it is non used in the forms VVen
, NVen
, NVing
, NprpVing
. Some forms of the verb are typical merely of one discrepancy ( e.g. NVen
and NprpVing
& # 8212 ; of BE, NV and NVing
& # 8212 ; AE ) . There are besides some characteristics of unsimilarity in the word ‘s lexical valency, e.g. a specifically British distinctive feature observed in newspaper manner is the ability of the verb to be used in combination with nouns denoting monetary value or quality ( to force up monetary values, rents, etc. ) .

As to word-formation in different discrepancies, the word-building agencies employed are the same and most of them are every bit productive. The difference lies merely in the changing grade of productiveness of some of them in this or that discrepancy. As compared with the British discrepancy, for illustration, in the American discrepancy the affixes -ette, – & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; , super- , as in kitchenette, conscript, super-market, are used more extensively ; the same is true of transition and blending ( as in walk-out & # 8212 ; ‘workers ‘ work stoppage ‘ from ( to ) walk out ; ( to ) major & # 8212 ; ‘specialize in a topic or field of survey ‘ from the adjectival major ; motel from motor + hotel, etc. ) . In the Australian discrepancy the suffixes-ie/-y and- & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; , every bit good as abbreviations are more productive than in BE.

Therefore, the lexical differentiations between different discrepancies of English are intricate and varied, but they do non do a system. For the most portion they are partial divergencies in the semantic construction and use of some words.

Some Points of History of the Territorial Variants and Lexical interchange between them

The lexical divergencies between different discrepancies of English have been brought about several historical procedures.

As we have known the English linguistic communication was brought to the American continent at the beginning of the seventeenth century and to Australia at the terminal of the eighteenth century as a consequence of the enlargement of British colonialism. It is inevitable that on each district in the new conditions the subsequent development of the linguistic communication should diverge slightly from that of British English.

In the first topographic point names for new animate beings, birds, fishes, workss, trees, etc. were formed of familiar English elements harmonizing to familiar English forms

. Such are mockingbird, Rana catesbeiana, catfish, peanut, sweet murphy, popcorn that were coined in AE or dogger – ‘professional huntsman of warrigals ‘ , Bushman—’Australian soldier in Boer War—formed in AuE.

New words were besides borrowed to show new constructs from the linguistic communications with which English came into contact on the new districts. Therefore in the American discrepancy there appeared Indian hickory, moose, raccoon, Spanish canon, mustang, spread, Sombrero, etc.

At the same clip quite a figure of words lost in BE have survived on the other continents and conversely, certain characteristics of earlier BE that have been retained in England were lost in the new assortments of the linguistic communication, changed their significance or acquired a new extra 1.

For illustration, Chaucer used to think in the significance of to believe, so make the present twenty-four hours Americans ; the English nevertheless abandoned it centuries ago and when they happen to hear it today they are witting that it is an Americanism. The same is true of the words to loan for to impart, fall for fall, homely for ugly, petroleum, etc.

The word barn designated in Britain a edifice for hive awaying grain ( the word was a compound in Old English consisting of bere & # 8212 ; ‘barley ‘ and aern & # 8212 ; ‘house ‘ ) ; in AE it came besides to intend a topographic point for lodging stock, peculiarly cowss. Similarly, maize was applied in America to an wholly different cereal ( maize ) and lost its former general significance ‘grain ‘ . The word station acquired the significance of ‘a sheep or cattle spread ‘ , the word shrub & # 8212 ; the significance of ‘wood & # 8217 ; and shrub ( AuE chaparral ) & # 8212 ; . ‘any flora but wood ‘ in AuE. Modern times are characterized by considerable levelling of the lexical differentiations between the discrepancies due to the growing of cultural and economic ties between states and development of modern agencies of communicating.

For illustration, a big figure of Americanisms have gained currency in BE, some going so exhaustively naturalized that the lexicons in England no longer tag them as foreigners ( e.g. dependable, drawn-out, talented, belittle ) . Others have a limited domain of application ( e.g. fan & # 8212 ; colloq. ‘a individual enthusiastic about a specific athletics, interest, or performing artist ‘ , to press out & # 8212 ; ‘smooth out, extinguish ‘ ) . The inflow of American movies, cartoon strips and periodicals resulted in the infiltration of American slang, e.g. catch & # 8212 ; ‘deceptive or secret device ‘ , to root & # 8212 ; ‘support or promote a contestant or squad, as by claping or heartening ‘ , etc.

Certain utilizations of familiar words, which some 50 old ages ago were peculiar to the US, are now either wholly naturalized in Britain or obviously on the manner to naturalisation. Numerous illustrations will be found by observing the words and significances indicated as American in lexicons at the beginning of the century and in present yearss.

At the same clip a figure of Briticisms have passed into the linguistic communication of the USA, e.g. smog which is a blend of fume and fog, to brief & # 8212 ; ‘to give instructions ‘ . This fact the advocators of the American linguistic communication theory intentionally ignore. Sometimes the Briticisms adopted in America compete with the corresponding American looks, the consequence being the distinction in significance or domains of application, for illustration, unlike the American shop, the word store, taken over from across the ocean at the beginning of the twentieth century is applied merely to little specialised constitutions ( e.g. gift store, hat store, confect store ) , or specialised sections of a section shop. British baggage used alongside American luggage in America differs from its challenger in collocability ( luggage compartment, baggage rack, but luggage auto, luggage cheque, luggage room ) . In the brace fall & # 8212 ; fall the difference in AE is of another nature: the former is studious, while the latter colloquial.

Local Discrepancies in the British Isles and in the USA

Local Dialects in the British lsles

In the British Isles there exist many address assortments confined to peculiar countries. These local idioms traceable to Old English dialects may be classified into six distinguishable divisions: 1 ) Lowland ( Scottish p & # 163 ; Scotch, North of the river Tweed ) , 2 ) Northern ( between tne rivers Tweed and Humber ) , 3 ) Western, 4 ) Midland and 5 ) Eastern ( between the river Humber and the Thames ) , 6 ) Southern ( South of tne Thames ) . Their domain of application is confined to the unwritten address of the rural population in a vicinity and merely the Scots idiom can be said to hold a literature of its ain with Robert Burns as its greatest representative.

Offspring & # 8217 ; s of the English national literary linguistic communication, the British local idioms are marked off from the former and from each other by some phonic, grammatical and lexical distinctive features.

Careful consideration of the national and the dialect vocabularies discloses that the most pronounced difference between them lies in the limited character of the dialect vocabularies. The literary linguistic communication contains many words non to be found in idioms, among them proficient and scientific footings.

1. Local lexical distinctive features, as yet the least studied, are most noticeable in specifically dialectal words refering to local imposts, societal life and natural conditions: laird & # 8212 ; ‘landed owner in Scotland ‘ , burgh & # 8212 ; ‘Scottish chartered town ‘ , kirk & # 8212 ; ‘church1, loch & # 8212 ; ‘Scottish lake or landlocked arm of the sea ‘ , etc. There are many names of objects and procedures connected with agriculture, such as the names of agricultural procedures, tools, domestic animate beings and the similar, e.g. Galloway & # 8212 ; ‘horse of little strong strain from Galloway, Scotland ‘ , kyloe & # 8212 ; ‘one of little strain of long-horned Scotch cows ‘ , shelty & # 8212 ; ‘Shetland pony ‘ . There is besides a considerable figure of emotionally coloured dialectal words, e.g. & # 167 ; fingerstall. bonny & # 8212 ; ‘beautiful, healthy-looking ‘ , braw & # 8212 ; ‘fine, excellent ‘ , daffy & # 8212 ; ‘crazy, silly ‘ , cuddy & # 8212 ; ‘fool, buttocks ‘ , loon & # 8212 ; ‘clumsy, stupid individual ‘ .

In add-on, words may hold different significances in the national linguistic communication and in the local idioms, e.g. in the Scots idiom the word to name is used in the significance of ‘to thrust ‘ , to put & # 8212 ; ‘to suit ‘ , short & # 8212 ; ‘rude ‘ , silly & # 8212 ; ‘weak ‘ , etc.

Dialectal lexical differences besides embrace word-building forms. For case, some Irish words contain the dimmut & # 1110 ; ve postfixs -an -een, -can, as in bohaun & # 8212 ; ‘cabin ‘ ( from Irish both & # 8212 ; ‘cabin ‘ ) ; bohereen & # 8212 ; ‘narrow route ‘ ( from Irish bothar & # 8212 ; ‘road ‘ ) ; mearacaun & # 8212 ; ‘thimble ‘ ( from Irish mear & # 8212 ; ‘finger ‘ ) ; etc. Some of these postfixs may even be added to English bases, as in girleen, dogeen, squireen ( squirrel ) , etc. Some specifically dialectal derived functions are formed from standard English stems with the aid of standard English affixes, e.g. Scot, flesher & # 8212 ; ‘butcher ‘ , Sudden ty & # 8212 ; ‘suddenness & # 8217 ; .

A great figure of words specifically dialectal appeared as a consequence of intense adoption from other linguistic communications, others are words that have disappeared from the national literary linguistic communication or go antediluvian, poetical, such as pack & # 8212 ; ‘go ‘ , OE sangan ; bairn & # 8212 ; . ‘child ‘ , OE beam, etc. Therefore, the lexical differences between the English national linguistic communication and its idioms are due to the difference in the domains of application, different pacing of development, different contacts with other peoples, and calculated amplification of literary norms.

The Relationship Between the English National Language and British Local Dialects

The local idioms in Britain are aggressively worsening in importance at the present clip ; they are being obliterated by the literary linguistic communication. This procedure is double. On the one manus, lexical units of the literary linguistic communication enter local idioms, throw outing some of their words and looks. On the other manus, dialectal words penetrate into the national literary linguistic communication. Many frequent words of common usage are dialectal in beginning, such as miss, one, foray, glamor, etc. Some words from idioms are used as proficient footings or professionalisms in the literary linguistic communication, e.g. the Scotch cuddy & # 8212 ; ‘ass ‘ is used in the significance of jack-screw and Lug & # 8212 ; ‘ear ‘ in the significance of grip.

Dialect distinctive features ( phonic, grammatical, but chiefly lexical ) modify in changing grades the linguistic communication spoken in different parts of Britain. These speech-forms are called regional discrepancies of the national linguistic communication and they are bit by bit replacing the old local idioms. It should be noted that the word idiom is used in two significances presents: to denote the old idioms which are now deceasing off, and to denote the regional discrepancies, i.e. a literary criterion with some characteristics from local idioms.

The most pronounced difference between idioms and regional discrepancies in the field of phonetics prevarications in the fact that dialects possess phonemic differentiations, while regional discrepancies are characterized by phonic differentiations. In affairs of vocabulary and grammar the difference is in the greater figure and greater diverseness of local distinctive features in the idioms as compared with the regional discrepancies.

lexical idiom English linguistic communication

Local Dialects in the USA Local Dialects in the USA

The English linguistic communication in the United States is characterized by comparative uniformity throughout the state. One can go three 1000 stat mis without meeting any but the slightest idiom differences. However, regional fluctuations in address doubtless exist and they have been observed and recorded by a figure of research workers.

The undermentioned three major belts of idioms have so far been identified, each with its ain characteristic characteristics: Northenr Midland and Southern, Midland being in bend divided into North Midland and South Midland.

The differences in pronunciation between American idioms are most evident, but they rarely interfere with apprehension. Differentiations in grammar are scarce. The differences in vocabulary are instead legion, but they are easy to pick up. Cf. , for example, Eastern New England sour-milk cheese. Inland Northern Dutch cheese, New York City pot cheese for Standard American bungalow cheese ( & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; ) .

The American linguist “ O. F. Emerson maintains that American English had non had clip to interrupt up into widely diverse idioms and he believes that in the class of clip the American idioms might eventually go about every bit distinguishable as the idioms in Britain. He is surely greatly mistaken. In modern times dialect divergency can non increase. On the contrary, in the United States, as elsewhere, the national linguistic communication is be givening to pass over out the dialect differentiations and to go still more unvarying.

Comparison of the idiom differences in the ‘ British Isles and in the USA reveals that non merely are they less legion and far less marked in the USA, but that the really nature of the local differentiations is different. What is normally known as American idioms is closer in nature to regional discrepancies of the literary linguistic communication. The job of know aparting between literary and dialect address forms in the USA is much more complicated than in Britain. Many American linguists point out that American English differs from British English in holding no one vicinity whose address forms have come to be recognized as the theoretical account for the remainder of the state.

Decisions Decisions

1. English is the national linguistic communication of England proper, the USA, Australia and some states of Canada. It was besides at different times imposed on the dwellers of the former and present British settlements and associated states every bit good as other Britain- and US-dominated districts, where the population has ever stuck to its ain female parent lingua.

2. British English, American English and Australian English are discrepancies of the same linguistic communication, because they serve all domains of verbal communicating. Their structural distinctive features, particularly morphology, sentence structure and word-formation, every bit good as their word-stock and phonic system are basically the same. American and Australian criterions are little alterations of the norms accepted in the British Isles. The position of Canadian English has non yet been established.

3. The chief lexical differences between the discrepancies are caused by the deficiency of tantamount lexical units in one of them, divergencies in the semantic constructions of polysemous words and distinctive features of use of some words on different districts.

4. The alleged local idioms in the British Isles and in the USA.are used merely by the rural population and merely for the intents of unwritten communicating. In both discrepancies local differentiations are more pronounced in pronunciation, less conspicuous in vocabulary and undistinguished in grammar.

5. The British local idioms can be traced back to Old English dialects. Numerous and distinguishable, they are characterized by phonemic and structural distinctive features. The local idioms are being bit by bit replaced by regional discrepancies of the literary linguistic communication, i. e. by a literary criterion with a proportion of local idiom characteristics.

6. Local fluctuations in the USA are comparatively little. What is called by tradition American idioms is closer in nature to regional discrepancies of the national literary linguistic communication.

Mentions

1. Wells, J. C. ( 1982 ) . Accents of English 2: The British Isles.

2. Moore, B 2008, Talking our linguistic communication: the narrative of Australian English, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, p. 69.

3. Wells 2006. Accents of English. P.595/

4. Concise Oxford comrade to the English linguistic communication, pp. 96 & # 8211 ; 102. 2005.

5. Crystal, David ( 2003 ) . The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the English linguistic communication ( 2nd ed. ) . Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary

uniformity
[ ] & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ;

set off
1 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; 2 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ;

revealI [ ] 1 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ;

scarce [ ] 1. 1 ) & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; , & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1081 ; 2 ) & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ;

fragmental [ ] 1 ) & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; ; & # 1092 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ;

appellation [ ] 1 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; 2 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1094 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ;

prosaic [ ] 1. 1 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; 2 ) & # 1091 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1111 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1080 ;

fringy [ ] ) & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; 4 ) & # 1084 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ;

touchable [ ] 1. 1 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; ( & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; ) ; & # 1097 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1108 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ;

intricate [ ] & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ;

barn [ ] 1 ) & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; ; & # 1089 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; 2 ) & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ;

grain [ ] 1. 1 ) & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; 2 ) & # 1093 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ;

bush [ ] & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1097 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ;

inflow [ ] 1 ) & # 1084 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; ( & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; ) 2 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ;

infiltration [ ] 1 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1110 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1103 ; 2 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ;

advocator 1. [ ] 1 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1100 ;

amplification [ ] 1 ) & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; 2 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ;

obliterate [ ] 1 ) & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; 2 ) & # 1079 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; ( & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; )

oust [ ] 1 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; ( & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1108 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1100 ; ) & # 1084 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1077 ; ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ;

penetrate [ ] 1 ) & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1091 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1100 ;

diverseness [ ] 1 ) & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; 2 ) & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ;

conspicuous [ ] & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; ; & # 1097 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1108 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1110 ;

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