Teenage Pregnancy Essay, Research Paper
The Truth About Teen Pregnancy
Although the rate of teenage gestation in the United States has declined greatly
within the past few old ages, it is still an tremendous job that needs to be addressed.
These rates are still higher in the 1990 & # 8217 ; s than they were merely a decennary ago. The United
State & # 8217 ; s teenage birth rate exceeds that of most other industrialised states, even though
American adolescents are no more sexually active than adolescents are in Canada or Europe.
( Gormly 348 )
Recent statistics refering the adolescent birth rates are dismaying. About 560,000
adolescent misss give birth each twelvemonth. Almost one-sixth of all births in the United States are to
teenage adult females are to teenage adult females. Eight in 10 of these births resulted from
unintended gestations. ( Gormly 347 ) By the age of 18, one out of four teenage
misss will hold become pregnant. ( Newman 679 )
Although the oncoming of gestation may happen in any adolescent, some teens are at
higher hazard for unplanned gestation than others. Adolescents who become sexually active
at an earlier age are at a greater hazard chiefly because immature adolescents are less likely to
usage birthcontrol. Afro-american and Latino adolescents are twice every bit likely to give birth
as are white adolescents. White persons are more likely to hold abortions. Adolescents who come
from hapless vicinities and attend segregated schools are at a high hazard for gestation.
Besides, adolescents who are making ill in school and have few programs for the hereafter are more
probably to go parents than those who are making good and have high educationsl and
occupational outlooks. Although the rate of teenage gestation is higher among low-
income African-Americans and Hispanics, particularly those in interior metropolis ghettoes, the
figure of births to adolescents is highest among white, nonpoor immature adult females who live in
little metropoliss and towns. ( Calhoun 309 )
In add-on to the inquiry of which teenagers become pregnant, involvement is shown
in the societal effects of early parentage. Adolescent parents ( largely female parents ) may
happen that they have a & # 8220 ; lost or limited chance for education. & # 8221 ; ( Johnson 4 ) The
higher a adult female & # 8217 ; s degree of instruction, the more likely she is to prorogue matrimony and
childbearing. Adolescents with small schooling are frequently twice every bit likely as those with more
instruction to hold a babe bafore their 20th birthday. Some 58 % of immature adult females in
the United States who receive less than a high school instruction give birth by the clip they
are twenty old ages old, compared with 13 % of immature adult females who complete at least 12
old ages of schooling. ( Tunick 11 ) Teens who become pregnant during high school are
more likely to drop out. ( Calhoun 310 ) A adolescent female parent leaves school because she can non
pull off the undertaking of caring for a babe and perusal, and a adolescent male parent normally chooses a occupation
over school so that he can pay measures and supply for his kid. ( Johnson 4 ) Adolescent female parents
normally have fewer resources than older female parents because they have had less clip to garner
nest eggs or construct up their & # 8220 ; productiveness & # 8221 ; through work experience, instruction, or preparation.
( Planned Parenthood 1 ) Because of this, adolescent female parents are by and large hapless and are
dependant on authorities support. ( Newman 679 ) The public assistance system is normally the
merely back up a adolescent parent will have. Welfare benefits are higher for households with
absent male parents or dependent kids. ( Calhoun 309 ) In some instances, adolescent female parents may
besides receive aid like Medicaid, Food Stamps, and & # 8220 ; Aid to Families with Dependent
Children & # 8221 ; ( AFDC ) . ( Newman 679 )
Besides educational and fiscal jobs, teenage female parents may confront a great trade
of emotional strain and may go really stressed. Adolescent female parents may hold limited societal
contacts and friendly relationships because they do non hold clip for anything other than their babe.
Lack of a societal life and clip for herself may do the teenage female parent to go
depressed or have severe mental anxiousness. ( Johnson 5 ) Depression may go worse for
a teenage female parent because she normally does non cognize much about kid development or
about how to care for their kids. Childs who are born to teenage female parents normally
suffer from hapless parenting. ( Berk 188 ) Besides, kids of teenage parents start being
sexually active before their equals and they are more likely to go adolescent parents
themselves. These kids may besides endure from fiscal troubles similar to that of
their parents. & # 8220 ; Children whose female parents are age 17 or younger are three times as
probably as their equals to be hapless, and are likely to remain hapless for a longer period of time. & # 8221 ;
( Calhoun 311 ) The kids born to teenage female parents sometimes score lower on
development trials than the kids of older female parents. It seems that & # 8220 ; instead than worsening
over clip, educational shortages addition in badness and the kids show lower academic
accomplishment, higher bead out rates, and are more likely to be held back in school. & # 8221 ;
( Calhoun 310 )
Teenage gestation comes with non merely a kid, but besides many effects.
Adolescent female parents face greater wellness hazards than older female parents, such as anaemia, gestation
induced high blood pressure, toxaemia of pregnancy, premature bringing, cervical injury, and even decease.
Many of these wellness hazards are due to inadequate antenatal attention and support, instead than
physical immatureness. The teenage female parent is more likely to be ill-fed and suffer
premature and drawn-out labour. ( Calhoun 311 ) The decease rate from gestation
complications are much higher among misss who give birth under age 15. ( Gormly
347 ) Poor eating wonts, smoke, intoxicant and drugs increase the hazard of holding a babe
with wellness jobs. ( Johnson 3 ) The younger the teenage female parent is, the higher the
opportunities are that she and her babe will hold wellness jobs. This is chiefly due to late
antenatal attention ( if any ) and hapless nutrition. ( Planned Parenthood 1 ) An stripling female parent
and her babe may non acquire adequate foods and, because the female parent & # 8217 ; s organic structure is non to the full
mature, she may hold many complications throughout the continuance of the gestation.
( Johnson 4 )
Along with the female parent, the kids of teenage parent
s excessively frequently become portion of a
rhythm of hapless wellness, school failure, and poorness. Babies born to teenage female parents are at a
high hazard of prematureness, delicate wellness, the demand for intensive attention, intellectual paralysis, epilepsy,
and mental deceleration. ( Johnson 5 ) Low birth weight is the most immediate wellness
job. Babies born to adolescents are frequently born excessively little, excessively shortly. Low birthweight
babes may hold immature organ systems ( encephalon, lungs, and bosom ) , trouble commanding
organic structure temperature and blood sugar degrees, and a hazard of deceasing in early babyhood that is much
higher than that of normal weight babes ( five and one-half lbs or more ) . ( Calhoun
310 ) & # 8220 ; The decease rate for babes whose female parents are under 15 old ages of age is dual
that of babes whose female parents are 20 to thirty old ages old. & # 8221 ; ( Johnson 5 )
Because of these highly serious jobs, many authorities, every bit good as local,
organisations are contending to halt the occurence of teenage gestation by assisting to
educate kids of the hazards involved and the effects after. Some research
indicates that & # 8220 ; the per centum of teenage birth rates has declined merely because fewer
adolescents are holding sexual intercourse and more striplings are utilizing contraceptives. & # 8221 ;
Research workers say that the recent tendencies in sexual activity and preventive usage are the
consequence of a figure of factors, including greater accent on abstention, more conservative
attitudes about sex, fright of undertaking sexually transmitted diseases, the popularity of
durable birthcontrol methods such as the preventive implant ( Norplant ) and the
injectable ( Depo-Provera ) , and even because of the economic system. In add-on, research workers say
that immature people have become slightly more conservative in their positions about insouciant
sex and out-of-wedlock childbirth. Some property this alteration in attitude chiefly to
concern about sexually familial diseases. Others say that it is because of the
engagement of conservative spiritual groups in the public argument over sexual behaviour.
Many research workers believe that the strong economic system and the increasing handiness of occupations at
lower limit pay have contributed to fewer births among adolescents. ( Donovan 32 )
Americans, nevertheless, seem to be against some of the methods used by these assorted
organisations to cut down the adolescent gestation rates. & # 8220 ; The most controversial facet of
adolescent gestation bar is the turning motion to supply adolescents with easy
entree to contraceptives. & # 8221 ; Most Americans believe that giving adolescents birthcontrol pills
and/or rubbers is the same as stating them that early sex is allowed. Some surveies that
were conducted in Europe show that some clinics in Europe that distribute preventives
to adolescents have the same sexual activity rate as in the United States. However, in these
European surveies, it is evident that adolescent gestation, childbearing, and abortion rates are
much lower. ( Berk 190 )
Adolescent gestation does do many jobs for the female parent, kid, and economic system.
There are, nevertheless, some incidences where the female parent overcomes this down-hill tendency
and makes a successful life for her and her kid. The result of adolescent gestation bends
out better if the female parent goes back to school after she has given birth. ( Berk 190 ) Staying
in school may assist to forestall teenage female parents from holding a 2nd gestation. ( Planned
Parenthood 2 ) The result is besides better if the female parent continues to populate with her
parents so that they can assist to raise the kid. Young, adolescent female parents need wellness attention for
themselves every bit good as their kids. An stripling female parent besides needs a great trade of
encouragement to acquire her to stay in school. Single teenage female parents besides need occupation
developing so that they can acquire a good occupation to back up themselves and their kids. Adolescent
female parents need to be taught rearing and life-management accomplishments and besides need high quality
and low-cost day care for their kids. Schools that provide day care centres on campus
cut down the incidence of adolescents dropping out of school. These school plans besides
diminish the likeliness that the adolescent female parent will hold more kids. ( Berk 189 )
Because the authorities has begun to take action in forestalling adolescent gestations,
the rate has continued to worsen. The big Numberss of immature people in America & # 8211 ; every bit good
as the values, wellness, instruction, accomplishments they gain & # 8211 ; will greatly impact the hereafter of society.
Therefore, increased attending should be given to the wellbeing of striplings. Since
greater attention is being given to the immature people, betterments are already happening. The
degree of instruction that immature people receive is much higher than that of their parents, and
the & # 8220 ; outlook that immature people should obtain at least some secondary schooling & # 8221 ; is
turning. The Numberss of adult females who have a kid during their adolescent old ages is worsening,
and acknowledging the impact of childbearing on instruction, parents and communities are
go oning to deter sexual activity, matrimony, and maternity at a immature age.
( Tunick 13 ) These recent tendencies, if continued, will more than probably educate the
adolescent population about the hazards and effects of teenage gestation and cut down
the incicence of adolescent gestation and childbearing wholly.
Berk, Laura E. Child Development. 4th erectile dysfunction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997.
Calhoun, C. et Al. Sociology. New York: Glencoe-McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Donovan, Patricia. & # 8220 ; Falling Teen Pregnancy, Birthrates: What & # 8217 ; s Behind the Declines? & # 8221 ;
The Guttmacher Report. 1.5 ( Oct. 1998 ) ; 31-34.
Gormly, Anne V. Lifespan Human Development. 6th erectile dysfunction. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace,
Johnson, Sherry. Adolescent Pregnancy: Excessively Much, Too Soon. Waco, TX: Health Edco. ,
Newman, Philip R. and Barbara M. Newman. Childhood and Adolescence. Pacific
Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. , 1997.
Planned Parenthood Federation of America. & # 8220 ; Pregnancy and Childbearing Among U.S.
Teens. & # 8221 ; Online. Internet. 29 Mar. 1999. Available
hypertext transfer protocol: //plannedparenthood.org/Library/teen-pregnancy/childbearing.htm
Tunick, Barbara. & # 8220 ; Issues in Brief: Hazards and Worlds of Early Childbearing Worldwide. & # 8221 ;
The Guttmacher Report. ( Feb. 1997 ) ; 10-14.