Shylock Essay, Research Paper
Throughout the class of history, Hebrews have been unrelentingly persecuted. The English are non an exclusion, since their history shows that the general English attitude towards Jews during the Elizabethan Era is anti-semitic. This negative prejudice towards Jews is seemingly clear in Elizabethan literature, including William Shakespeare? s The Merchant of Venice. Shylock, the Judaic adversary in Shakespeare? s drama, is stereotypically portrayed as a scoundrel in conformity to popular bias. Therefore, Shylock is labeled as a scoundrel because he is a Jew. This misconception of Jews as being nefarious in nature persisted good into the twentieth century until the recent mass race murder of Jews in Hitler? s Nazi Germany. This dismaying incident is the taging point that sensitized the modern reader to Judaic agonies. Therefore, in the eyes of the modern reader, Shylock? s word picture as a scoundrel due to his spiritual strong beliefs is refuted. Still, it is non merely sympathy that deems Shylock as a hero but besides the unfairness he suffers in the custodies of the Christian society which includes his born-again girl Jessica.
Shylock? s character is defended from its nefarious reading upon two factors: ? the sociological, which exonerates Shylock on the footing of environmental force per unit areas, and the racial, which assimilates him to the whole dismaying history of antisemitism? ( 1 ) . Based on the racial issue, Shylock? s character is condemned because he is a Jew. Shylock? s function as a scoundrel in the drama reflects the general racialist biass against Jews. Therefore, from his first visual aspect, Shylock does non hold a opportunity to appeal to the audience. Therefore, to the modern reader, Shylock is a victim of unfairness which is representative of his race. By understanding the history behind the creative activity of Shylock, his trials can be assimilated to the general Jewish agony.
Hebraism has a long history of persecution. A brief historical analysis of Jewish and Christian dealingss in England reveals a general anti-semitic attitude towards the outnumbered Jews. A drastic illustration of this negative feeling is King Edward the First? s ejection of the Jews in 1290 which staged a practical mass exile of Jews from England. For the following three hundred 60 six old ages, the Judaic population dramatically decreased to a few 100s until the reinstatement of Jews back into England in 1656 by Oliver Cromwell. Still, anti-semitic feelings were strong as illustrated by the popularity of William Shakespeare? s The Merchant of Venice every bit good as Marlow? s play The Jew of Malta. Shakespeare, taking advantage of the populace? s anti-Jewish feelings, ? borrowed? thoughts from his fellow dramatist Marlow and designed the character of Shylock. This proved to be advantageous since the drama achieved much success and Shakespeare was a major stockholder of his theatrical company ( 2 ) . Shakespeare? s drama was popular non merely because it was a good written copyright violation, but it gave the audience what they wanted. Another illustration of the popularity of Shakespeare? s drama due to its anti-semitic undertones is the strong protests elicited by the Drury Lane theatre when they failed to present the drama during the contention over the Jew Bill ( 3 ) . The Judaic Naturalization Bill, or Jew Bill, was merely? a little change in the demands for how foreign Jews could go established British topics? ( 4 ) . Even though the measure was a minor amendment, Englishmen were so adamantly obsessed with the thought of detesting Jews that the Jew Bill was eventually repealed. Therefore, Shylock? s character was created in an epoch where spiritual intolerance alienated Hebrews from the Christian commonwealth.
Based on the sociological factor, Shylock is a sympathetic character because of the environmental force per unit areas in the drama. Antonio, Shylock? s mortal enemy, is a premier illustration of the intervention that Shylock invariably receives in the Christian society of Venice. Antonio holds a personal blood feud towards Shylock merely because he is a Jew ; ? He hath dishonor me? . thwarted my deals, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies? and what? s his ground? I am a Jew? ( III.i. 97 ) . Antonio besides wrongs Shylock by hurtling abuses at him such as? cutthroat Canis familiaris? , ? heretic? , and even goes to the extent of ptyalizing on him ( I.iii. 35 ) . This is the unfriendly environment that Shylock is staged in. He has no hope for rapprochement with the Christian community because they feel precisely what Antonio malignantly admits ; ? I am as like to name thee [ mongrel ] once more, To spet on thee once more, to reject thee, excessively. If thou wilt lend this money, lend it non as to thy friends? .but lend it instead to thine enemy? ( I.iii. 36-37 ) . This is the? Christian illustration? that Shylock has to populate with ; ? Around [ Shylock ] is the society of Venice, a universe of aureate young person, amply dressed? .but rather impossible to those outside its ain circle, where Shylock is so evidently placed? ( 5 ) . Shylock? s character deserves the reader? s understanding because he is non merely anomic, but he is cursed and? spet? on every bit good.
Besides his disaffection from the Christian society
, Shylock draws understanding from the modern reader through Jessica? s treachery. With one blow, Shylock loses his girl and a immense part of his difficult earned lucks due to Jessica? s blasphemous befoulment of her trueness to her male parent. Jessica is? bad and unpatriotic, unfilial, a stealer ; frivolous, greedy, without any more scruples than a cat and without even a cat? s delivering love of place?
( 6 ) . Alienated from society, the merely other individual besides Tubal whom Shylock can number on and trust is Jessica, his girl. Even though Jessica knows that it is incorrect to bewray her male parent, she still goes in front and commits the wickedness ; ? what flagitious wickedness is it in me to be ashamed to be my male parent? s kid? ? .I shall stop this discord, go a Christian? ( II.iv.61 ) . Jessica betrays her male parent for Lorenzo, her faith for Lorenzo, and her unity for Lorenzo. If Shakespeare is to be labeled as being prejudiced against Jews, it has to be for the portraiture of this heathen kid. Even though critics argue that Shylock mistreated his girl, he still loved her ; ? [ he was ] invariably naming her name [ after her treachery ] , which tells us of a alone adult male! He has looked to her for everything, has tasked her difficult, no uncertainty ; he is her prison guard, yet he trusts her, and loves her in his extortionate manner? ( 7 ) . Therefore, in Shylock? s province of incredulous incredulity in Jessica? s treachery, the lone thing that he can do sense out of is his ducats that have ne’er betrayed his religion. Therefore, he overemphasizes on his? diamond [ that ] cost [ him ] two thousand ducats in Frankfurt? and his? cherished, cherished gems? non as a mark of greed, but a manifestation of a male parent? s wretchedness.
Furthermore, Jessica strips Shylock from his married woman? s ring. When Shylock finds out that Jessica bought a monkey with Leah? s ring, he exclaims in a tone of torment ; ? It was my turquoise! I had it of Leah when I was a unmarried man. I would non hold given it for a wilderness of monkeys? ( III.i. 101 ) . Jessica and the ring are the lone two unreplaceable ownerships that Shylock of all time had. Yet, by swearing Jessica, he loses both of them. Not merely does his anguish leave room for the reader? s understanding, it besides shows how? Christianity? mistreats Shylock. Shylock accepts Antonio and his friends? intervention, but
when Jessica converts to Christianity by run offing with Lorenzo, Shylock? s universe becomes despicable and vindictive, which leads to avenge.
Many critics have argued that what truly makes Shylock a scoundrel is the lb of flesh that he wants to demand from Antonio for his forfeiture to the bond. Even though Shakespeare makes it look simply as a retaliation, Shylock has every right to roll up what is due to him. Technically, Shylock is carry oning concern as usual. Antonio had boldly stated that if he should interrupt the bond, so Shylock has the right with? better face [ to ] demand the punishment? ( I.iii.37 ) . Antonio understood absolutely good the effects of the bond, yet he signed it. What is truly unjust for Shylock is the confederacy set against him at the tribunal. Besides being cheated from claiming his due from Antonio because of fiddling trifles, a confederacy between the Christians sets a secret plan for their retaliation against him. The Duke, as the figure of authorization and the determination shaper, consults with Antonio refering Shylock? s penalty. If they had so understood the true significance of? Christian Mercy? , so Antonio? s due to Shylock of three 1000s ducats should hold been paid and the full incident forgotten. Yet, Shylock is cheated from his money and is levied with a heavy mulct, which Antonio ( his person enemy ) , non the Duke dictates ; ? So delight the Godhead the Duke and all the tribunal To discontinue the mulct for one half of his goods, I am content, so he will allow me hold The other half in usage, to render it Upon his decease unto the gentleman That recently stole his girl? ( IV.i. 169 ) . What makes Shylock a more sympathetic victim is that Antonio, besides depriving Shylock of his lucks, twits him by coercing him to go forth his heritage to the adult male that? stole? his girl. Besides, as one of the conditions to excuse his life, Antonio demands that Shylock? soon become a
Christian? ( IV.i. 169 ) . This petition surpasses any of his old Acts of the Apostless of inhuman treatment because he is inquiring Shylock to denounce his religion, and therefore his life. Shylock, who has been mistreated by Antonio throughout his life in Venice, is forced to yield to his enemy. At the brink of justness, Shylock is robbed from his lone hope for solace.
Critical analysis on Shakespeare is non an easy undertaking because no 1 will ne’er cognize what he truly intend. Shakespeare might or might non hold been an anti-semitic but the grounds clearly shows that The Merchant of Venice has anti-semitic undertones. Shylock? s destiny falls coincident with the upseting history of Judaic persecution. He is robbed non merely of his self-respect, but besides his girl, his turquoise ring and human justness. Betrayal drives his retribution, yet his retribution is non driven by malevolence. Shylock deserves the understanding of the modern reader because he suffers, because Jews suffered, unjustly.