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Sexuality As Process Essay, Research Paper

The purpose of this essay, is to seek and set up if gender, is an innate

biological procedure that takes topographic point as a consequence of our familial makeup or wether

gender is a consequence of our cultural back land and the environment in which

we are raised. These two differing theories are known as the nature/nurture

argument, nature stand foring the biological theory for our gender and raising

stand foring environmental influences for our behavior. The first portion of the

essay, will concentrate on the biological side of our gender and will set frontward

theories by Barnard, Hamer and Young, who will reason the point, that our

gender is established at the fetal phase of our development. It is at this

early phase of life, that cistrons carry specific information about who we are. A

cistron is a unit of familial that our gender is established through and the

cistrons determine the biological features of an person, both physically

and mentally. The essay will so give further grounds that our gender is

biologically driven, by depicting the alterations our organic structures undergo when we reach

pubescence, alterations that are triggered by hormonal passages. Hormones are

chemical couriers, they send massages from secretory organs around the organic structure, which

triggers a response in other parts of our anatomy. The essay will give grounds

that, endocrines are a biological index that we are biologically driven

towards our gender. The 2nd portion of the essay will reason that, gender

is greatly influenced by environmental factors, environmental factors such as

rise uping manners and differing cultural practises. It will look at different

societies and the manner in which they perceive gender and argue that gender

is learned through a combination of expected societal norms and experimental

acquisition, giving grounds from Bandura, Mead and Money along the manner. Finally

the essay will look at the grounds that has been put frontward and sum up what

has been debated, it will so pull a decision. From the point of construct,

human existences are made up of 46 chromosomes, 23 male and 23 female. After

insemination, paternal and maternal chromosomes fuse, this merger determines the

sex of the kid. The merger of two X chromosomes creates a female kid,

while the combination of X and Y chromosomes, leads to the development of a male

offspring. Each chromosome contains 1000s cistrons and each cistron contains

specific information about how portion of the organic structure will be formed. Genes are

responsible for about every facet of the human organic structure, from hair coloring material to the

development of our variety meats, variety meats like the encephalon and it is within the encephalon were

the biggest alterations take topographic point when our organic structures under go their sexual

metamorphic, during sexual ripening. When we reach sexual adulthood, we have

our first penetration into our gender, an penetration which is genetically programmed

into our consciousness through our Deoxyribonucleic acid, this theory is supported by the work of

hamer et Al ( 1993 ) who conducted a survey of male sexual orientation. “ Hamer

examined 40 braces of homosexual brothers. He examined 22 familial markers distributed

across the X chromosome in order to see if brothers concordant for

homosexualism, were besides accordant for the markers. He found that the

chromosomal part of xq28, at the tip of the long arm of the X chromosome, 33

of the 40 braces of brothers shared all the markers. This was statistically

different from the expected rate ( 20 out of 40 ) suggesting that the cistron

act uponing male sexual orientation, lies within that chromosomal part ”

In this survey, Hamer along with many other fellow geneticists, is claiming that

he has found the cistron which dictates our sexual orientation, hence cistrons are

a precursor to our gender and our gender is decided at an anatomical degree

in the uterus. Whilst in the uterus, it seems that our gender is being pre

programmed by our cistrons but there are other biological developments taking

topographic point, viz. the formation of our endocrines, endocrines which will lie hibernating

until the oncoming of pubescence. “ The hypothalamus an of import co-ordinating

Centre in the encephalon, signals the oncoming of pubescence. The hypothalamus stimulates a

secretory organ merely below it, the hypophysis, to release endocrines ( chemical couriers

carried in the blood ) . These are carried to other hormonal releasing secretory organs. In

their bend these let go of other endocrines which regulate physical growing and

development ” ( DR Christian Barnard. 1981 ) The two chief endocrines released at

sexual adulthood are testosterone for males and oestrogen for females. When

Testosterone is distributed throughout the sexually maturating male, his testicles

will enlarge and get down bring forthing sperm. His organic structure will get down to turn pubic hair,

his voice will intensify, his musculuss will go larger and he will demo more

aggression when seeking to asseverate his maleness. By comparing, the industry

of oestrogen within the adolescent female will advance rather different

developments throughout her organic structure. She will develop chests, her hips will turn

and widen, she will turn pubic hair and most significantly she will get down her

catamenial rhythm, significance, like the sexually maturating male, she will hold

attained full generative capacity. So hence, it seems that it is

testosterone what gives adult male his maleness and it is oestrogen that helps

set up adult females muliebrity. This theory is given support by an experiment

carried out by W.C.Young. Young carried out an experiment on a pregnant monkey,

that was transporting a female fetus, she gave the primate big day-to-day doses of the

male endocrine testosterone to seek and determine if the endocrine would hold any

consequence on the monkey & # 8217 ; s gender. When it was born, the female monkey behaved in

a much more self-asserting and aggressive mode, than other females of her sort, her

behavior was noted to be more like that of a male monkey. She participated in

all the rambunctious activity with the male members of her species and challenged

them in battles, which helped set up her societal position amongst the male

monkeys. Other experiments have shown that monke

ys injected with testosterone

between birth and pubescence, developed similar assertive, typically male behavior.

These instance surveies put frontward, argue exactly the point, that it is biological

factors that decide our gender and we are hence biologically driven

towards our gender. *************** The raising theory, put merely, agencies

that our gender is non the consequence of our biological science ( nature ) but instead that our

gender and features are socially learned through experience. A survey

by Albert Bandura et Al ( 197- ) has shown how “ kids learn their functions

from those influential theoretical accounts they observe around them, peculiarly their

parents. If the two sexes are treated otherwise and have different

outlooks of their behavior so they will larn to act otherwise.

These differences include their gender and this might be papering them for the

sort of societal functions that they find them selves in later ” In this

statement, Bandura is seeking to state us that the kernel of who we are and who

we perceive our egos to be, is acquired at an early age, through experimental

acquisition and it is through experimental acquisition that we develop our construct of

societal norms. Social norms are expected forms of behavior that develop in

any societal group over clip, they become a major portion of our civilization and one portion

of that civilization is the perceptual experience of our gender. In the 1930s, a societal

anthropologist named Margaret Mead ( 193- ) carried out a survey of the sexual

functions of a native Indian society known as the Tchambuli people, who lived on the

island of New Guinea. Mead found “ dramatic differences in the ways male childs and

misss are treated and in the personalities and behavior of the grownups which

appeared as a consequence ” Mead discovered that the adult females of the Tchambuli

people socialised their male kids to be artistic, originative and sentimental.

The grownup males would sit around the small town gossipmongering, doing themselves look

reasonably and they by and large took over the function as the female gender. The adult females on

the other manus had assumed the lead in all affairs, they were competitory,

aggressive, they were the huntsmans and conducted all the trade necessary for

their small town. Mead concuded, that it was a “ classical gender function

reversal ” This survey helps to turn out, that how we are raised and other

environmental factors, aid determine our sexuality/gender. A survey by John Money,

determined that it was environmental factors that helped a immature Judaic male child ( one

of indistinguishable twins ) set up his gender after holding his phallus damaged

during a Circumcision operation. His phallus was so severely damaged, that his

physicians came to the decision, he would non be able to work as a male and

hence, at the age of 17 months, it was decided to do him into a

female. The male child had surgery and a class of endocrine intervention began. With female

socialization, the kid shortly began acting like other misss. By the clip the

kid had reached the age of five, the differences between the twins was

considerable. She enjoyed feminine things such as playing with dolls, holding her

hair brushed and seting on make-up, by the clip she had reached maturity, she

was identical from any other female of her ain age. If sexual functions were

determined by innate forces so such a alteration in behavior would non hold been

possible, as this female was genetically male. The first portion of this essay

argued that, gender is a biologically goaded procedure that is established in

the uterus. It reviled our gender is decided from the minute of construct,

through the fertilisation of the female egg cell. It so took a more in-depth expression

at the biological side of our gender by looking at our familial make-up. It

showed that a survey by Hammer had indicated that it was possible to turn up the

cistron that is responsible for our gender by analyzing same sex household members.

The essay so farther substantiated that our gender is a biological procedure,

by giving a descriptive history of how hormonal alterations affect the human organic structure,

when we reach ripening. It showed how an experiment by W.C.Young, helped to

turn out that endocrines play a major function in our gender, by shooting the female

fetus of a monkey with the male endocrine testosterone. She found, after the

monkey was born, it was more predisposed to being male than it was female. She

concluded, that in all chance, it was because of the testosterone

injections. The 2nd portion of the essay concentrated on the nurture side of our

gender and tried to set up if our gender could be shaped by

environmental factors. It gave an history of a survey by Bandura, which showed

that kids use experimental acquisition, to assist them understand their

individuality. Bandura argued that “ kids imitate influential theoretical accounts around

them. They try to populate up to people & # 8217 ; s outlooks of them, outlooks

including gender and this can take to a ego carry throughing prophesy in

maturity ” In the 1930s, Mead studied the native Indian people of New

Guinea and found dramatic differences in the manner they reared their kids

compared to other civilizations. She observed that the gender functions were reversed,

male childs were raised as females and misss reared as males. She determined this had

enduring branchings on their gender and gender in big life. Money

conducted a survey of a immature male child whose phallus was damaged in a bungled

Circumcision operation. The organ was so severely damaged that it was decided to

transform him into a female. After socializing and raising him as a miss, money

noted that he had become mentally and physically identical from any

other female of his ain age. This essay has examined both sides of the statement

of how we get our gender and after giving much idea, has come to the

decision, that although our environment plays an of import portion in our sexual

development, it is an unconditioned biological procedure that determines our gender.

It is our cistrons that dictate gender and hence our gender is

genetically programmed within us at the earliest phases of fetal development.

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