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Robert E. Lee Essay, Research Paper

Introduction

Few episodes in history are more painful to Americans than the Civil

War, fought between the North and the South. This life, Great

American Generals & # 8211 ; Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, takes the reader through

the life of one of the greatest heroes of that war, Robert E. Lee. It is a

thorough, in deepness record of the life of Lee and begins with a elaborate history

of his household history and his birth, through his college old ages, military

experience and his work in ulterior life to his decease on October 12, 1870. The

foremost few pages set the scene by naming a significant sum of facts about the

names and backgrounds of his parents Harry and Ann and Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman, Mary

Custis, with some mention to his male parent & # 8217 ; s ground forces calling and political life.

After Lee & # 8217 ; s early old ages, the reader will larn of his schooling at the Military

Academy, West Point, followed by his life in the Army before and after the

Civil War. The life ends in the latter pages with an history of his

work after his military calling came to an terminal, and eventually, with his decease after

a drawn-out period of ill-health, thought to be stress induced.

Writer Ian Hogg is a fecund author in the field of defence and military

engineering. He is a arms expert, holding written many books on all types

of rifles, scatterguns and little weaponries, such as Modern Rifles, Shotguns and

Pistols, and Modern Small Arms. He is an acknowledged expert on foot

arms and is thought to be the universe & # 8217 ; s taking expert on this and heavy weapon

schemes. He is a good known writer of military history, and works as a

arms judge in add-on to his authorship.

Robert E. Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia on January 19, 1807.

His male parent, Henry Lee, had achieved celebrity with Washington & # 8217 ; s ground forces as

& # 8220 ; Lighthorse Harry, & # 8221 ; and it was a celebrity that rested non merely on his horse

feats but upon sound strategic and tactical ability. A important part of

his celebrity was credited to him for crushing off a surprise British onslaught at Spread

Eagle Tavern in January, 1778. Unfortunately Harry was narcissistic

and had a high sentiment of his ain abilities. Although he achieved the rank of

lieutenant-colonel, he felt that he deserved more. When the war ended and he

had non advanced in rank he resigned from the ground forces to prosecute a calling in

political relations. Henry decided to run for the place of governor. He was elected

Governor of Virginia for three footings. Retiring, as was so customary in

Virginia, on the termination of his 3rd term, Henry Lee was plenty in the

public oculus to be considered as a possible replacement to Washington. He was,

nevertheless, a hapless director of his personal businesss, and was invariably dodging his

creditors, supplying really small of substance for his household. He was a wastrel,

with no idea for their public assistance. A adult male with no sense of duty to

his personal businesss, Henry Lee finally ended up in gaol for a twelvemonth for non-payment

of his debts. Upon his release, he spent every waking minute composing his

memoirs, with no respect for his household at all.

Lee & # 8217 ; s female parent was Ann Carter Lee, girl of Charles Carter. She was

an invalid, but possessed a strong and beautiful character, and Robert grew

up with a acute sense of award and duty. Robert was named after his

female parent & # 8217 ; s brothers, Edward and Robert Carter.

Lee & # 8217 ; s male parent, Henry, was separated from the household when Robert was

merely four old ages old. Lee & # 8217 ; s female parent left Henry due to his deficiency of proviso for

them, and Lee assumed the duty of the family at a really early age.

Henry later died when Lee was merely eleven, but Lee & # 8217 ; s battle to

keep the family without the presence of a male parent, and with small

money, taught him valuable lessons in self-denial, lessons which

supported him good in his military calling.

Since there was no money for college, Robert entered the U.S. Military

Academy in 1825 to prosecute a calling in the armed forces. He was fortunate in

going a Cadet at the Institution at a clip when the Superintendent was

Major Sylvanus Thayer, the adult male who started West Point on its manner to fame

as a military preparation school. He was the 2nd to graduate in a category of 46.

Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in the

Engineering Corps, a division of the Army which at that clip received merely

the best Cadets. Unfortunately his pleasance and success diminished when he

returned place to Arlington to happen his female parent in the last phases of her unwellness,

and he diligently nursed her at that place until she died in July of 1829.

Soon after Lee received orders stating that he was to describe to

Cockspur Island to assist with the building of Fort Pulaski. While there he

corresponded with Mary Custis, the girl of Martha Washington & # 8217 ; s

grandson. She was besides girl of the affluent George Washington Parke

Custus, who upon his decease left her two beautiful Virginia estates, Arlington

and Whitehouse. In 1831, although against Mr. Custis & # 8217 ; s wants, he married

Mary Custus.

The first topographic point the Lees went after their matrimony was Fort Monroe.

Mary Custis despised Fort Monroe. During a Christmas visit back to

Arlington, she made the determination to stay at that place. In the Spring, Robert rode

back to inquire her to return, which she did. By this clip she was pregnant and

gave birth to their first kid, George Washington Parke Custis Lee. The Leess

had four girls and three boies. All three of their boies served in the

Confederate Army. Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman ne’er adjusted to the asperities of ground forces stations and

she and the kids lived at Arlington until the war between the provinces, when

their place fell into the custodies of federal forces. Arlington was taken by the

U.S. Government and was ne’er restored to the Lee household, although one clip

the household had sued to acquire it back and was granted an insurance.

On the eruption of the Mexican War, in 1846, Lee was appointed to

General Winfield Scott & # 8217 ; s personal staff. He proceeded to Brazos on January

16, 1847. The General was deep in readyings for the conflict at Vera Cruz.

This was to be Lee & # 8217 ; s first experience under existent fire. Because of his

superb leading and accomplishment in scheme, he won the congratulations of General Scott.

Scott called Lee & # 8220 ; the greatest military mastermind in America & # 8221 ; , and & # 8220 ; the best

soldier I of all time saw in the field. & # 8221 ; Lee was at that place to see the resignation of the

Mexicans on March 29th. He survived many more brushs with the

enemy in the war with Mexico. He arrived back in Washington on June 29,

1848, holding been off for one twelvemonth and 10 months.

When Lee entered the war, he was a captain. He emerged with the

rank of Colonel. His following responsibility was in Baltimore where he supervised the

building of Fort Carroll. This was to be his last technology undertaking

because his following halt, in August 1852, was The United States Military

Academy. He became Superintendent at West Point in 1852. In his three

old ages of service at that place, Lee established some extremely successful processs

which contributed to the repute of the Academy.

On April 12, 1855, Lee was sent to Louisville, Kentucky to take

bid of the 2nd. Cavalry. As Colonel of Cavalry, Lee spent most of the

following six old ages in Texas. In 1859, while sing Arlington, he received a note

from Colonel Drinkard telling him to describe to the Secretary of War

instantly. At Harper & # 8217 ; s Ferry trains had been stopped ; firing had been

heard ; rumour had it that many aliens had arrived and were motivating slaves

to rioting. It was reported to Lee that the leader of the pack was called John

Brown, a ill-famed antislavery overzealous from Kansas, who had been unable to

rally the slaves to rebellion and was eventually besieged in a fire-house. Lee was

to take the United States Marines, to stamp down John Brown & # 8217 ; s Raid at Harper & # 8217 ; s

Ferry. He asked Brown for his resignation, expecting that this would non

happen. When Brown refused to give up, Lee ordered the door of the

fire station, in which Brown & # 8217 ; s set had taken safety, to be battered down. The

military personnels had rigorous orders to assail merely with bayonets, non to fire a individual shooting,

in instance any of the sureties would be wounded. The whole operation was

over in three proceedingss.

In the beginning of the war between the provinces, Lee found himself

confronting the most hard determination of his life. He believed in the abolishment of

bondage, but non by force. He believed in a united state, but non one that

could be maintained merely by blades and bayonets. When President Lincoln

asked him to take bid of the Federal military personnels in the field, Lee replied that

he could non take portion in an invasion of his native province. He offered his

surrender and within a few yearss, he was commissioned to General in the

Confederate Army. He served as military adviser to Jefferson Davis, as

Commanding officer of the Army of Northern Virginia and so as General-in-chief of

all Confederate Armies.

The history of Lee & # 8217 ; s behavior in the Confederate run is a narrative of

a epic battle against overpowering odds. In the first two old ages of the

war, the South made considerable headroom, successfully defying General

McClellan & # 8217 ; s try to take Richmond. But there were ne’er adequate work forces,

nutrient, or guns. The transit job became increasingly worse, and

the Armies were continually at the clemency of political pillagers. Against the

superior forces of the Union, Lee pitted all the scheme of a maestro soldier

and he was able to present shattering blows at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and

Chancellorville. All of this was to come to an terminal with the reaching of the

conflict at Gettysburg. This was to be the turning point of the whole war. On

July 1st, Lee rode towards Gettysburg, hearing the sound of gunshot in the

distance. A few yearss subsequently, holding sustained enormous casualties, Lee was

be aftering his retreat.

With the licking of Lee & # 8217 ; s ground forces at Gettysburg, nevertheless, in July, 1863,

the tide turned against the South. That was the last clip Lee was able to derive

an violative place. On April 9, 1865, recognizing that farther opposition was

a waste of clip, he surrendered his close starvation, depleted ground forces to General

Ulysses S. Grant, the Union commanding officer in head, at Appomattox Court

House, Virginia. He penned a farewell reference to his work forces and put off the following

twenty-four hours to Richmond, where his household had been populating since they had abandoned

Arlington.

His place confiscated, his household impoverished, and his bosom heavy,

with the load of defeated South, Lee turned to the undertaking of rapprochement.

He applied instantly fo

R forgiveness and Restoration to citizenship, experiencing that

this illustration might take other Confederates to make the same. He tried every

manner to mend the breach between the North and the South.

Positions of great award and wage were offered to Lee, both in

his ain state and abroad, but he had no desire to come in into politically

controversial activities. In the Summer of 1865 he was offered the

Presidency of Washington College ( renamed Washington & A ; Lee University

after his decease ) , in Lexington, VA. The college was virtually in ruins, but Lee

accepted the place after he was ensured his connexion with the college

would non wound it in any manner. Lee & # 8217 ; s friends and relations were shocked at

the thought that Lee would accept a place at such a little school. He had

received offers from many bigger and wealthier topographic points. Lee, on the other

manus, saw far beyond the rubric and looked on this as an chance to assist

reconstruct the South by educating it & # 8217 ; s young person. Lee genuinely felt his great intent in

life was to assist do a united state and to this terminal he set approximately to educate

Southern young person into a renewed spirit of trueness. Lee accepted the station and

headed for the college campus in Lexington. Once at that place, Lee found that as

good as being President of the college, he was besides Dean, Bursar, Registrar,

Head Gardener, and general factotum. His wage was $ 125 per month, and

he had one secretary to help him. However, Lee set to his undertaking and began

composing to other establishments imploring for money.

Once the President & # 8217 ; s house was ready, Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman and girls joined

him at that place. Lee & # 8217 ; s boies were busy trying to salve the household estates,

although Arlington was gone everlastingly, forfeited for default of revenue enhancements

during the war, when Union governments insisted that delinquent taxpayers

had to do payment in individual, and it was by this clip surrounded by a

military graveyard & # 8211 ; as it still is ( pg. 75 ) .

Under Lee & # 8217 ; s counsel, Washington College prospered. The pupil

organic structure increased to four-hundred. The course of study was widened, new edifices

were bit by bit added, and as the celebrity of the college spread, pupils came

from all over the United States.

As the months went by, Lee & # 8217 ; s wellness began to neglect. He was treated fro

rheumatism, lumbar pain, and other ailments, but the field fact was his bosom

was have oning out. In the Spring of 1869, Lee visited Baltimore in an attempt to

raise money for a railway undertaking. From there he went on to Washington,

where he visited his old friend, General Grant, who was now President of the

United States.

When Lee returned from Washington, he began to doubt his ability to

continue as President of the college. He stated that the occupation needed a fitter

adult male than he. His talk of surrender was dismissed, and the module, early in

1870, suggested that he should travel south for a holiday to assist recover his

wellness. In the Summer of 1870, it was remarkably hot, and Lee tired easy. He

was no longer able to sit Equus caballus. On September 28, it rained and Lee had to

go to a church vestryman & # 8217 ; s meeting, where he sat in his moisture apparels and

listened to the curate complain about his rewards. When Lee eventually returned

place, he entered his house, stood soundless, and so collapsed in a chair. His

married woman quickly sent for a physician.

The physicians conferred and sent Lee to bed. For the following two yearss Lee

slept most of the clip. After that, he seemed to better and began to eat.

But when he was offered medical specialty, he refused stating & # 8220 ; it was no usage & # 8221 ; . For the

following two hebdomads he stayed in bed. On October 10, Lee & # 8217 ; s pulsation and external respiration

sped up and he suffered shuddering enchantments. On the undermentioned twenty-four hours, Lee became

hallucinating, and his head wandered to the yesteryear. He on occasion called out some

long disregarded names. & # 8220 ; Tell Hill he must come up, & # 8221 ; he cried. His married woman sat

keeping his manus the whole dark, until merely after 9:00 am of October 12, 1870,

Lee sat up, cried out & # 8220 ; strike the collapsible shelter & # 8221 ; , fell back in bed and died. He was

buried beneath the college chapel, and the full state mourned his passing.

By his bravery in war and self-respect in licking, he had won the esteem and

regard of Northerners and Southerners likewise.

Drumhead

Robert E. Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia on January 19, 1807.

His male parent, Henry Lee, had achieved celebrity with Washington & # 8217 ; s ground forces as

& # 8220 ; Lighthorse Harry. & # 8221 ;

Lee & # 8217 ; s female parent was Ann Carter Lee, girl of Charles Carter. She left

Henry when Robert was merely four old ages old, and Lee assumed the

duty of the family at a really early age. Lee & # 8217 ; s battle to keep

the family without the presence of a male parent, and with small money, taught

him valuable lessons in self-denial, lessons which supported him good in

his military calling.

Robert entered the U.S. Military Academy in 1825 to prosecute a calling

in the armed forces. He was the 2nd to graduate in a category of 46. Upon

graduation, he was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in the Technology

Corps.

In 1831, he married Mary Custus, Martha Washington & # 8217 ; s

great-grandaughter. The first topographic point the Lees went after their matrimony was

Fort Monroe. They were at that place for three old ages, traveling on to Arlington in

1834. The Lees had four girls and three boies. Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman ne’er adjusted

to the asperities of ground forces stations and she and the kids lived at Arlington until

the war between the provinces, when their place fell into the custodies of federal

forces.

On the eruption of the Mexican War, in 1846, Lee was appointed to

General Winfield Scott & # 8217 ; s personal staff. Because of his superb leading

and accomplishment in scheme, he won the congratulations of General Scott. He survived many

more brushs with the enemy in the war with Mexico. He arrived back in

Washington on June 29, 1848, holding been off for one twelvemonth and ten

months.

When Lee entered the war, he was a captain. He emerged with the

rank of Colonel. His following responsibility was in Baltimore where he supervised the

building of Fort Carroll. He became Superintendent at West Point in

1852. In his three old ages of service at that place, Lee established some extremely

successful processs which contributed to the repute of the Academy.

On April 12, 1855, Lee was sent to Louisville, Kentucky to take

bid of the 2nd. Cavalry. As Colonel of Cavalry, Lee spent most of the

following six old ages in Texas. Lee was so sent to take the United States Marines

to stamp down John Brown & # 8217 ; s Raid at Harper & # 8217 ; s Ferry. When Lee arrived at

Harper & # 8217 ; s Ferry, he ordered the door of the fire station, in which Brown & # 8217 ; s band

had taken safety, to be battered down. The whole operation was over in

three proceedingss.

In the beginning of the war between the provinces, Lee found himself

confronting the most hard determination of his life. He believed in the abolishment of

bondage, but non by force. He believed in a united state, but non one that

could be maintained merely by blades and bayonets. When President Lincoln

asked him to take bid of the Federal military personnels in the field, Lee refused.

Lee resigned from the Army a few yearss subsequently. He was commissioned to

General in the Confederate Army. He served as military adviser to Jefferson

Davis, as Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia and so as

General-in-chief of all Confederate Armies.

In the first two old ages of the war, the South made considerable

headroom, successfully defying General McClellan & # 8217 ; s try to take

Capital of virginia. But there were ne’er adequate work forces, nutrient, or guns. The

transit job became increasingly worse, and the Armies were

continually at the clemency of political pillagers. Against the superior forces of

the Union, Lee pitted all the scheme of a maestro soldier and he was able to

deliver shattering blows at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorville. All

of this was to come to an terminal with the reaching of the conflict at Gettysburg.

This was to be the turning point of the whole war.

With the licking of Lee & # 8217 ; s ground forces at Gettysburg, nevertheless, in July, 1863,

the tide turned against the South. That was the last clip Lee was able to derive

an violative place. On April 9, 1865, he surrendered his close starvation,

depleted ground forces to General Ulysses S. Grant, the Union commanding officer in head, at

Appomattox Court House, Virginia. He set off the following twenty-four hours to Richmond,

where his household had been populating since they had abandoned Arlington. After

the war he applied instantly for forgiveness and Restoration to citizenship,

experiencing that this illustration might take other Confederates to make the same. He

tried every manner to mend the breach between the North and the South.

In the Summer of 1865 he was offered the Presidency of Washington

College in Lexington, VA. The college was virtually in ruins, but Lee

accepted the place after he was ensured his connexion with the college

would non wound it in any manner. Lee accepted the station and headed for the

college campus in Lexington. The strain of seting the poorness stricken

college back on its pess and the jobs of Reconstruction took its toll, and

Lee & # 8217 ; s wellness began to neglect. He died on October 12, 1870, and was buried

beneath the college chapel.

Analysis

Great American Generals & # 8211 ; Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, is an in-depth

relation of the life and decease of Robert E. Lee, one of America & # 8217 ; s great

heroes. It begins with an history of Lee & # 8217 ; s household history, that of his parents,

and the fortunes into which he was born on January 19, 1807, and terminals

with his decease on October 12, 1870.

Hogg relates the intervening old ages in an highly interesting manner,

supplying many fascinating and elaborate pieces of information. The narrative is

presented in a manner that keeps the involvement of the reader, and is non deadening,

even when giving statistics of the assorted runs that Lee undertook. The

book entreaties non merely to Lee fans, but to all history pupils.

The pages are filled with legion elaborate maps, and colourful images

that enhance the position of Lee and his life. Military pupils will please in the

descriptions of the war, while pupils of Lee & # 8217 ; s character are rewarded by

intriguing facts of his and his parent & # 8217 ; s lives.

Hogg presents this painful episode in America & # 8217 ; s history in a balanced,

non-judgemental manner. He portrays Lee as a adult male of great unity and award,

a true Southern gentleman, and casts no slurs refering the fact that Lee

was on the losing side of a war in which there were no victors.

This is an exciting and enlightening book and is one of the more

gratifying books which are required reading for this class.

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