Q. Critically discuss the statement that adult females experience ‘special strivings ‘ of imprisonment
Prison is a cardinal penalty of the penal system. It ‘s argued that it punishes an single by taking their ‘freedom ‘ and rehabilitating them for their greater good of their future life. However, a cardinal statement within the usage of prisons is related to female imprisonment. Many have argued, as this inquiry does, adult females suffer from ‘special strivings ‘ when imprisoned. This ‘special strivings ‘ analogy, elaborates on to countries such as the geographical place of female prisons, the bond between female parents and their kid, the deficiency of emotional support to adult females and acknowledgment of the differences in the jobs they may confront compared to males. In this essay, the inquiry has asked me to critically discourse these experiences for adult females. To critically discourse, I must look at all sides of the statements, at all the theories related to it and so reason my findings and my result. There have been legion surveies on the emotional and mental wellness of adult females in prison and the experiences they face and I must utilize these to reason whether adult females do see particular strivings in prison.
A majorly debated subject sing the imprisonment of adult females Centres on the usage of Mother and Baby units. This is the usage of a specially designated ‘creche ‘ type country in the prison for pregnant females to give birth and effort to make a mother-child bond, with new born babes being kept in some prisons up until the age of 18 months. A survey by HMIP ( 1997 ) showed that 4 % of female parents had a kid with them in prison. However, the usage of a female parent and babe unit must be foremost approved by the place secretary, and is a controversial subject due to the elevation of a new born babe in a prison environment and the position that ‘incarcerating inexperienced persons ‘ is profoundly affectional. Harmonizing to the prison service web site, ‘each application for admittance is assessed on an single footing by a multi-disciplinary squad, whose focal point will be at the best involvements of the kid. ‘ They so continued to explicate that every adult female ‘s prison is appointed a female parent and babe liaison officer, who offers aid and advice to the appliers. However, harmonizing to the reform group ‘women in prison ‘ , topographic points are frequently limited and demand outstrips supply. The age bound upper limit is 18 months in unfastened prison and nine months in others, so at that place will ever be an inevitableness of female parents being separated. Mother and Baby units are frequently a controversial country and many argue that there are considerable concerns about holding babes develop in prison environments. Mental upsets in female captives are well higher than in non-incarcerated groups ( singleton 1998 ) . This is evidently another concern for M & A ; BU ‘s, even thought the rates are shown to be lower among female parents in the female parent and babe units, it remains a concern. However, some people feel if a female parent wants a kid in prison with them, they should be allowed. A place office survey undertaken a decennary ago indicated that recent research suggests female parents in prison are ‘doubly punished ‘ as they are functioning a sentence at the same clip as seeking to do commissariats for their kids with all the associated troubles and strains, compared to male parents who serve their sentence by and large in the cognition that their spouses will go on to care for their kids ( Caddle and Crisp 1997 ) . The statement is based around happening the balance of making a mother-child bond and the moral rights of raising an ‘innocent individual ‘ in a prison. Others have argued about why a female parent should hold particular privileges to entree to their kid, when a male parent does n’t hold the same rights, some besides argue about the public assistance of a kid raised in a prison environment and whether that can be safe, clean or morally right. The other possible position is that some female parents and babes are really better off in prison, potentially safe from force in the place, hapless life conditions and a deficiency of maternal accomplishments.
Many surveies have been conducted on the topic of female captives, and most of them have been conducted by women’s rightists looking at why adult females are treated otherwise to male captives, the set up of prisons, and the effects that set up has on females. The first country of peculiar involvement is the prejudiced facet of the prisons. Carlen and Worrall ( 2004 ) focused on how female captives are treated otherwise to their male opposite numbers, but non normally in ways that are of advantageous to them. Carlen ( 1983 ) besides noted that although tonss of female captives are treated as if they are work forces, their experiences in prison are immensely different from males. Carlen suggested that adult females tend to be imprisoned greater distances from place compared to work forces, due to the limited figure of female prisons in the UK, intending the distance to their closest prison could be greater. This causes a job with household contact. Female prisons in the UK, as compared to work forces have merely 14 prisons to work forces ‘s 139. The female prisons are hence widely dispersed across assorted parts of the UK. This has many issues, chiefly being that household contact may be highly difficult, and near impossible if the households are hapless, as travel costs and clip are non easy accessible to see the female. Figures show that households are forced to reach their loved 1s by telephone ( 75 % ) and missive ( 85 % ) . This evidently is non every bit good as seeing the person in existent life, and can hold monolithic impacts on the female captive emotionally. It besides has a negative impact on the household its ego, particularly if kids are involved, with the absence of a female parent who is non even accessible to see. Carlen besides found that the nature and scope of governments in adult females ‘s prisons tends to be more restricted for the same ground. Women captives besides tend to endure greater societal stigmas, which is mostly as a consequence of being perceived as being ‘doubly pervert ‘ . Carlen and Worrall ( 2004 ) besides identified ‘prisonisation ‘ as a cardinal factor in adult females ‘s imprisonment. They believe that prisons and prison systems are organised in relation to work forces ‘s demands and ill equipped to cover with adult females ‘s differing demands. They besides looked at the negative manner in which adult females adapt to imprisonment compared to work forces, and to whether their behavior interior is a merchandise of the nature of the government and the civilization of the prison. Resistance is besides another cardinal point Carlen and Worrall examined, claiming that in contrast to the earlier point of prisonisation, they explored the thought that adult females can, and do defy facets of the experience of imprisonment by transporting out functions such as utilizing muliebrity as a tool to counter prison life. They besides attempt to develop vivacious, extremely organized inmate civilizations harmonizing to Barton ( 2005 ) .
A unfavorable judgment suggested earlier on in this essay was that prisons are designed for, and hence better suit males. Some believe that resources, and the manner captives are treated to the mold of a male captive, and this presents a cardinal issue to female captives. This leaves job countries such as small specialization intervention for adult females, limited work, preparation and educational jobs and a ‘cry ‘ for female intervention by the rise of feminism in prisons. This unfavorable judgment is a really strong one as the traditional mold, aimed at white British work forces, is to old school, and does n’t cover the broad scope of inmate ‘s diverseness from their age to their civilization and to their demands allow entirely their gender.
To assistance to the statement of adult females sing particular strivings in imprisonment, some statistics are interesting to see on the subject. Prior to come ining prison, 47 % of female captives reported holding used cleft cocaine in the twelvemonth before entrance, and 57 % reported utilizing diacetylmorphine, demoing merely some of the drug jobs suffered by adult females before come ining prison, doing rehabilitation whilst imprisoned hard. ( Home office research findings ) . 40 % of female captives besides received aid or intervention for a mental or emotional job in the twelvemonth prior to imprisonment and 50 % of females had some signifier of personality upset, proposing deep prevarication jobs in the mental province of female wrongdoers prior to come ining prison and potentially set uping the strivings they experience in prison as some prisons may non be set up to assist cover with these issues. Whilst in prison 14 % of female captives were assessed as holding suffered from a functional psychosis in the past twelvemonth. Besides 15 % of female ‘s sentenced captives had antecedently been admitted to a mental infirmary ( singleton et al.1998 ) , demoing the old concerns of the mental breakability of female inmates. 60 % of female captives besides rated their ain wellness as carnival, hapless or really hapless ( Marshall et al. 2000 ) . Female captives besides reported holding higher rates of asthma, epilepsy, high blood force per unit area, anxiousness and depression, tummy ailment, period and menopausal jobs, sight and hearing troubles and kidney and vesica jobs, than adult females in the general population, all indicating towards more specially designed female prisons instead than the traditional female prison which many argue is still based on the classical prison based on the demands of work forces ( Marshall et al. 2000 ) . 37 % of female captives had antecedently attempted self-destruction ( singleton et Al. 1998 ) , all of these statistics prove merely some of the ‘special strivings ‘ adult females feel before, during and after admittance to prison. However, an alternate position of the manner adult females are treated in the condemnable justness system suggests adult females are treated favorably. Hermann Mannheim ( 1940 ) said ‘it can, of class, be taken for granted that the female wrongdoer, if punished, meets on the whole with greater lenience on the portion of the tribunals than the male. Talking by and large, the per centum of adult females lessenings in conformance with the badness of the peculiar method of penal intervention ‘ . This position is summarised as a ‘chivalry thesis. ‘ This implies that the condemnable justness system is more protective and has a patriarchal position of female offending. Mary McIntosh ( 1978 ) argued that ‘most Torahs apply to work forces and adult females likewise, yet far more work forces are convicted of offenses than adult females. ‘ However to contrast that, there is a position that adult females are treated much harsher in the system so work forces. There is increasing grounds that adult females find condemnable tribunals more daunting, unsympathetic and perplexing than work forces ( Parker et al. 1981 ) . However Farrington and Morris ( 1983 ) found that gender tended non to hold any bearing on the badness of the sentence.
So what else can be done to assist female captives? What alterations could be made to halt these ‘special strivings ‘ ? Some different options have been bandied about and discussed. The first is Women centred prisons. Arguments have been raised that prisons that are 100 % female, intending all staff are female excessively, may extinguish gender favoritism, and a better apprehension of the demands of female inmates. Research workers such as Liebling and Price ( 2001 ) found that like in the constabulary service, females were badly underrepresented in the prison officer classs and do up a significant minority. They found out that merely 17 % of prison officers were female and that falls to 10 % for senior officers and 7.5 % were chief officers. One of the issues with female prisons being full with male prison officers is the issue of cross gender communicating. Some female inmates may non experience as if they can ‘open up ‘ to male officers about jobs they may be confronting, taking to a ‘locked up ‘ type hurting and the physique up of hurting and defeat. Another option is mixed-prisons, some feel it will move as a ‘space rescuer ‘ and cut costs on female lone prisons and could besides battle the issue of female captives holding to travel long distance from place. The authorities late built and opened a mixed-prison in Peterborough lodging 480 work forces and 360 adult females, nevertheless contention surrounded it as merely female inmates were made to cook repasts as officers believed there was a ”serious hazard of males loading nutrients, as compared to females, ‘ foregrounding some of the possible jobs that it would confront. The concluding option suggested is community based countenances. It has been suggested that tutelary sentences for adult females must be reserved for serious and violent wrongdoers who pose a menace to the populace and that community solutions for non-violent adult females wrongdoers should be the norm. It besides argued that adult females should be improbable to have a tutelary sentence should non be remanded in detention and that there must be a strong consistent message right from the top of authorities, with full grounds given, in support of its declared policy that prison is non the right topographic point for adult females wrongdoers who pose no hazard to the populace.
To reason, grounds suggests adult females do see particular strivings whilst in imprisonment, and stairss and alterations should be made to accommodate the penal system to adult females ‘s demands, instead than prevailing with an old system set up to cover with male captives. As I have found Mother and pamper units are a controversial subject, but a deficiency of a female parent and babe unit may move as a ‘double penalty ‘ due to the deficiency of a mother-baby bond. However the consequence it has on the kid born in the prison should be researched in more deepness and if there is any negative effects on the kid, the issues should be earnestly reconsidered. The intervention of adult females in prisons was besides another country I looked at it and it showed the demand for alterations excessively. An over representation in female prisons of male officers creates a kind of ‘tension barrier ‘ between the genders and can take to a physique up of defeat to the feeling that they may non be able to speak to them officers freely as they are male. Research I studied besides found tonss of particular strivings amongst adult females. Mental jobs with wrongdoers amongst adult females was particularly high, and the drug usage and force could be needed to be treated in a different manner to how males are treated to work out their jobs in prisons, but the chance is n’t there for adult females. The concluding country I looked at was what changes or different options they have available to accommodate the system to assist female wrongdoers. The first was the usage of Women centred prisons and the creative activity of a better apprehension between the inmates and the officers by being the same gender. The second was the creative activity of assorted prisons, but that had some issues with tensenesss between male and female captives. The concluding was the usage of more community based countenances instead than incarcerating adult females, nevertheless this may do females more bucked up ot commit offenses due to the deficiency of terrible penalty for their actions.