Marie Curie Essay, Research Paper
LIFE OF MARIE CURIE
Marie Curie ( 1867-1934 ) was a Gallic physicist with many achievements in both natural philosophies and chemical science. Marie and her hubby Pierre, who was besides a Gallic physicist, are both celebrated for their work in radiation.
Marie Curie, originally named Marja Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw, Poland on Nov.7, 1867. Her first acquisition of natural philosophies came from her male parent who taught it in high school. Marie & # 8217 ; s male parent must hold taught his girl good because in 1891, she went to Paris ( where she changed her original name ) and enrolled in the Sorbonne. Then two old ages subsequently she passed the Examination for her natural philosophies degree ranking in first topographic point. She met Pierre Curie in 1894, and married him in the following twelvemonth. Marie later gave birth to two girls Irene ( 1897 ) and Eve ( 1904 ) .
Pierre Curie ( 1859-1906 ) obtained his doctor’s degree in the twelvemonth of his matrimony, but had already distinguished himself in the survey of the belongingss of crystals. He discovered the phenomenon of piezoelectric effect, whereby alterations in the volume of certain crystals excite little electric potencies. He discovered that the magnetic susceptibleness of paramagnetic stuffs is reciprocally relative to the absolute temperature, and that there exists a critical temperature above which the magnetic belongingss disappear, this is called the Curie temperature.
Marie Curie was interested in the recent finds of radiation, which were made by Wilhelm Roentgen on the find of X raies in 1895, and by Henri Becquerel in 1896, when he discovered uranium gives off similar unseeable radiation as the X raies. Curie therefore began analyzing U radiation and made it her doctorial thesis. With the assistance of an electrometer built by Pierre, Marie measured the strength of the radiation emitted form uranium compounds and found it relative to the U content, changeless over a long period of clip and influenced by external conditions. She detected a similar changeless radiation in the compounds of Th. While look intoing these consequences, she made the find that uranium uraninite and the mineral chalcolite emitted four times every bit much radiation as their U content. She realized that unknown elements, even more radioactive so U must be present. Then in 1898 she drew the radical decision that uraninite contains a little sum of an unknown radiating component.
Pierre Curie understood the importance of this guess and joined his married woman & # 8217 ; s work. In the following twelvemonth, the Curie & # 8217 ; s discovered two new radiating elements which they named Polonium ( after Maries native state ) and Radium. They now began the boring and monumental undertaking of insulating these elements so that their chemi
cal belongingss could be determined. During the following four old ages, working in a leaky wooden shed, they processed a ton of uraninite, laboriously insulating from it a fraction of a gm of Ra.
In 1903, Marie Curie obtained her doctor’s degree for a thesis on radioactive substances, and with her hubby and Henri Becquerel she won the Nobel Prize for natural philosophies for the joint find of radiation. Finally, the Curies fiscal facet was relieved, and the undermentioned twelvemonth Pierre was made the professor at the Sorbonne, and Marie the helper. Everything was traveling good for the Curies, but so Pierre was run over by a Equus caballus drawn cart and killed. Marie was profoundly affected by his decease and overcame this blow merely by seting all her energy into her scientific work that they had begun together.
Marie took over her hubby & # 8217 ; s station at the Sorbonne, therefore doing her the first female lector at the Sorbonne, and in 1908 she was appointed the professor. In 1911 she received an unprecedented 2nd Nobel award, this clip in chemical science for her work on Ra and it & # 8217 ; s compound.
During World War I, Madame Curie dedicated herself wholly to the development of the usage of X raies in medical specialty. In 1918 she became caput of the Paris Institute of Radium, were her daughter Irene Joliot-Curie worked with her hubby Fredric Joliet. Her research for the remainder of her life was dedicated to the chemical science of radioactive stuffs and their medical applications. She labored to set up international scholarships and lectured abroad. Marie Curie died on July 4, 1934 of Leukemia, which was doubtless caused by drawn-out exposure to radiation. A twelvemonth subsequently Irene and Fredric won the Nobel award in chemical science for the synthesis of new radioactive elements.
ELEMENTS MARIE DISCOVERED
Polonium is a rare metallic component, which of course occurs in U ore uraninite. But most normally is made unnaturally by pelting Bi ( a toffee metal ) with neutrons. It is used chiefly by scientists for atomic research.
Radium is a extremely radioactive metallic component. It occurs largely in Th ores and U. It was discovered by the Curies while treating uraninite. Until mid-1950 & # 8217 ; s Ra was merely used for handling malignant neoplastic disease and an ingredient in fluorescent pigment used for ticker and instrument dials. Today safer and cheaper beginnings of radiation have replaced Ra for most industrial and medical utilizations.
The work of the Curies, which by its nature dealt with alterations in the atomic karyon, led the manner toward modern apprehension of the atom as an entity that can be split to let go of tremendous sums of energy. With these finds we have been able to really set to utilize the elements in our mundane life.