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Knitwear is for maintaining heat in the winter, this is the perspect1ive of people. Nowadays, originative knitwear becomes manner and there is no division of seasons. Novelty knit stitch is the most of import component in keeping the tendency. Cabled knit is one of the dimensional stitches appears in every winter season. It gives alone texture comparing to other stitches and the adding dimensional consequence to knitwear. Reviewing the past few seasons, the exposure from track show the bing and future tendency. Figure 1.1 shows overseas telegram on Centres front from Twinkle by Wenlan and Figure 1.2 shows the extraordinary overseas telegrams from Pringle of Scotland in Fall/Winter 2009/10.

Figure 1.1 Twinkle by Wenlan Fall/Winter 2009/10 ( stylesight.com )

Figure 1.2 Pringle of Scotland Fall/Winter 2009/10 ( stylesight.com )

In Fall/Winter 2010/11, Figure 1.3 shows Maison Martin Margiela developed large-scale of overseas telegram in and Figure 1.4 shows a authoritative overseas telegram knit stitch from Vionnet.

Figure 1.3 Maison Martin Margiela Fall/Winter 2010/11 ( stylesight.com )

Figure 1.4. Vionnet Fall/Winter 2010/11 ( stylesight.com )

For the extroverted Fall/Winter 2011/12, Figure 1.5 shows complicated overseas telegrams from Marc by Marc Jacobs and Figure 1.6 shows cabled knit frock from Bora Aksu.

Figure 1.5 Marc by Marc Jacobs Fall/Winter 2011/12 ( stylesight.com )

Figure 1.6 Bora Aksu Fall/Winter 2011/12 ( stylesight.com )

Other than that, basic stitches such as miss stitch, it gives the laddering consequence is popular in the knitwear manner, the drifting between perpendicular rows or ribs. Loop transferred making different textures and effects of the knitted cloth. In order to make mesh consequence, slackly formed knitwork construction by bead stitch to give the unfastened chevrons in the cloth.

The assorted combinations of basic knit stitches provide different fabric visual aspect. Uniting the basic stitches to make dimensional knit stitches and produced by different level knitting machines with different consequence provides singularity of the garment.

New and alone knitwork construction pouring can continue the knitwear industry. The new elements of the knit stitches are non published, and the book existed largely speaking about the basic knitwork techniques and mechanism.

In this survey, the geographic expedition of dimensional knit stitch in knitwear on track, the creative activity of personal inspired, the farther development of the basic knitwork techniques will be included in this research to enrich the concluding aggregation.

Aims

The aim of the survey is to develop new dimensional stitch which is inspired from the track and modified by ain creative activity. To reexamine the basic knit stitches and dimensional knit stitches have done by knitwear interior decorators in Fall/Winter 2011/12. Explore and make experiment of ain created dimensional knit stitch to acquire the coveted forms. Repeatedly experiment of the same stitch by modifying and uniting the basic knitwork techniques. Analyze the development and procedure of organizing the new stitches.

Scope of Study

The research is based on the basic knit construction and application from the level knitwork machine, the development of the basic knitwork stitch types and cringle types will be investigated. To research about the dimensional knit stitches have done by knitwear interior decorators in Fall/Winter 2011/12. Experiment of the new stitch development by ain creative activity will be carried out. Seeking advices from technician and supervisors to forestall failure knitwork and guarantee the knitted swatches are the succeeded and expected with the new stitch.

The experiment will be carried out in the knitting research lab in The Hong Kong Polytechnic University by SHIMA SEIKI SDS-ONE system and SHIMA SEIKI 122S 12GG Flat Bed Knitting Machine and 7GG Flat Bed Hand Knitting Machine. Designs of the new stitches will be proofed by technician and supervisor.

Methodology

Literature reappraisal will be carried out for reexamining the basic knit construction and the mechanism of the level knitwork machine. Explore and analyse the dimensional knit stitches have done by knitwear interior decorators in Fall/Winter 2011/12. Transport out experiment for making the new stitch and compare the consequence with different techniques to acquire the coveted forms. Knitted swatches will be presented with diagrams bespeaking the knitwork techniques. The consequence of experiment will be recorded by chart and analyze the information by evaluation.

Significance of Study

Since there are no published books stating about the organizing techniques of dimensional stitches and the book existed largely speaking about the basic knitwork techniques and mechanism, there is no uncertainty to keep the knitwear industry in the hereafter by making and developing advanced elements on the knitwear. Sing to the current knitwear tendency, cabled knit stitches gives dimensional consequence and texture to the knitwear and it has high potency of stitches development in the industry.

For the mass market, knitwear interior decorators are driven to acquire inspiration from the track, but there is non many ways more than merely copied. For pretermiting the consecutive acceptance from the track garment to the mass production, farther development is needed for the new coevals of knitwear interior decorators. Creations based on the basic techniques from the released books and unite the assorted techniques of organizing the new stitch.

Structure of Project Work

The undertaking work consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the background of work, aims, range of survey, methodological analysiss and significance of survey.

Chapter 2 is a comprehensive reappraisal of bing literatures which involves of

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Study of Basic Knit Structures & A ; Loop Types

Introduction

As all the knitted samples are produced by woof knitwork machine, there are some categorizations of the knitted constructions, and they are classified into three basic groups harmonizing to the agreement of cringles in their classs and Waless, and five cringle types. Figures show the knit construction and the symbols show the knitwork notation, these artworks give the individuality to each construction.

Basic Knit Structure

Plain Knit

Plain knit is a construction that formed by merely one needle bed and either front needle bed or rise up needle bed. The 2nd bed is inactive throughout the whole knitwork procedure and the acerate leafs remain idle.

The needle forms a face cringle by drawing the freshly fed narration towards it through the old cringle. When the cloth is produced on the forepart needle bed, it shows merely face cringle to the perceiver standing in forepart of the knitwork machine ( Figure 2.1 ) ; if the cloth is produced on the rear needle bed, it shows the rearward side of the cringles ( Figure 2.2 ) ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.1-2 Technical face and proficient back side of field knit

Figure 2.3-4 Notations of proficient face and proficient back side of field knit

Rib Structure

When comparing to Plain Knit, rib is a construction that formed by both needle beds which alternately ascend and descend to organize cringles.

For an illustration, when all the acerate leafs take part in the knitwork process, a “ 1×1 Rib ” is formed ( Figure 2.5 ) . When the cloth is viewed from one side, one welt is made of face cringles ; one welt is made of contrary cringle and so on. The Waless made of rearward cringles are in fact the Waless exhibiting face cringles when the cloth is viewed from the other side ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.5 Structure of 1×1 rib

Figure 2.6 Notation of 1×1 rib

Purl Structure

Purl is a construction that the forepart and rearward cringles appear in the same Waless. It requires both needle beds engagement for the formation of cringles.

The production of purl knit construction on the “ V ” bed level knitwork machine and it needs loop transportation to bring forth the construction. For an illustration, the 1×1 purl construction in Figure 2.7.

And, the mixture of knit/transfer for single acerate leafs gives different purl construction, i.e. 1×1, 2×2 ( Figure 2.8 ) ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.7 Structure of 1×1 purl

Figure 2.8 Notation of 1×1 purl

Figure 2.9 Structure of 2×2 purl

Figure 2.10 Notation of 2×2 purl

Basic Loop Types

Introduction

In the old chapter, the basic knit construction is constructed by one type of knitted cringle. The debut of the basic cringle types gives a brief thought of the formation and features of the knitted cringle, in add-on to heighten the complexness of forms.

The Standard Loop

Based on the placement of acerate leafs and the production of the cloth, the formation of the basic cringle has two different faces. The face cringle is formed by the forepart needle bed ; the rear cringle is formed by the rear needle bed. And, when detecting the cloth from the other side, the face cringle appears as a contrary cringle ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.11 Face side of a standard cringle

Figure 2.12 Back side of a standard cringle

Figure 2.13 Notation of a face cringle

Figure 2.14 Notation of a rear cringle

Miss Stitch

It is an consequence created by the missing of knitted cringle in the cringle formation sequence. The chief elements of the stitch are included an enlarged knitted cringle and a consecutive component of narration. At the back side, there is a long float behind the criterion cringle which is the consequence of a acerate leaf has non participated in one sequence of loop formation ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.15 Face side of miss Stitch

Figure 2.16 Back side of miss stitch

Figure 2.17 Notation of miss stitch

Tuck Stitch

This is a stitch which is similar to Miss Stitch, the reveals building. The narration is tucked into the construction by the needle, alternatively of being formed into a cringle. It is an consequence created by stretched cringle with a section of narration tucked behind it. And, there is an of import component of the tuck stitch, what gives a large difference to the Miss Stitch, is the tucked narration is placed behind the stretched face cringle ( Figure 2.18 ) ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.18 Face side of tuck stitch

Figure 2.19 Back side of tuck stitch

Figure 2.20 Notation of tuck stitch

Transferred Stitch

A transferred stitch is non an extra cringle type and it is a consequence of automatically taking a cringle from the rear needle bed and puting it on a acerate leaf at the forepart. That is the bringing procedure of a cringle from the presenting needle to the having acerate leaf while the both acerate leafs are in resting place. There is no extra notation symbol and the transferred process is clearly described by the needle notation system ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.21 Transportation stitch

Figure 2.22 Needle notation of transferred stitch

The Dropped Stitch

Dropped stitch is non a specific and normal cringle types, which is created from knitting failures. However, it gives uniqueness to the knitting form of a cloth under a controlled tenseness and stairss. No narration is fed to the acerate leaf when the needle ascends to knitting place so descends. This is a controlled type to drop its stitch to make a “ Ladder ” consequence. There is no particular notation symbol of a dropped stitch and it is shown by yarn simulation in the needle notation system with a broken line, bespeaking there is no narration fed to the specific cringle ( Raz, 1993 ) .

Figure 2.23 Dropped stitch

Figure 2.24 Notation of dropped stitch

Weft Knitting Machine

Introduction

For industry and fabrication, there are many types of woof knitting machines, such as individual bed knitting machine enemy domestic used and consecutive saloon machine for fully-fashion. However, in this undertaking work, two types of machines will be operated for the experiments. They are manually operated level knitwork machine and computing machine controlled knitting machine, will be introduced in the followers.

Manually Operated Flat Knitting Machine

It is a simple, manually operated, knitting machine. In the past clip, it was the anchor of the garment fabrication industry. The increasing of labor costs and the development of garment knitting forms have forced this type of machine out of the production lines. It was replaced by the advanced automatically machine and subsequently with computing machine controlled system ( Raz, 1993 ) .

A level bed machine with two-bed set in an upside-down V formation, called “ v-bed knitwork machine ” . Some simple knitting consequence such as, field knit, rib construction ; or even Ottoman stitch, overseas telegrams can be produced.

Figure 2.25 V-bed manus level knitwork machine ( MN-B Stoll Machine ( Jiangsu ) )

Computer Controlled Knitting Machine

For industrial production, the sophisticated electronically controlled knitting machine is hired for greater production rate. This sort of machine has assorted picks of machine gage for different garment production. It provides finer gages of knitted garment and more particular construction can be produced. When comparing to v-bed knitwork machine, the computing machine controlled knitting machine requires electronically operation system and specific programme for operation. It gives more assortment of the knitwork forms and effects than the v-bed knitwork machine.

Figure 2.26 Computer Controlled Knitting Machine ( SIG123SC – Shima Seiki )

Fabric Fibers

Introduction

Talking about knitwear, the first thing that pops up into the head is fibre and narration. Fibre is one the most of import component to organize the knitted garment. Its belongingss give different public presentation to the knitwear that could be modified by different types, knit construction and coating. The fibers are classified as natural fibers, semisynthetic fibers and mineral fibers.

Figure 2.27 Fibre categorization based on beginning ( Textile Information )

Natural Fibers

The natural fibers are classified in two classs, carnal fibers and vegetable fibers.

Animal Fibers

Animal fibers are largely protein fibers, one of the most used in the industry is silk. Silk is a fiber excreted by the silkworm. Silk fiber has high luster in visual aspect and first-class manus feel. It appears in most of the epicurean manner trade name knitwear merchandises. Wool is besides the extremely used fiber, it is the fiber from fleece of sheep or lamb. There are assorted lengths of wool fibers. Short wool fibers which may be two inches or less, are made into soft and fuzzed narrations ; long wool fibers which may be two to eight inches, they are smoother and firmer. Wool is warm and comfy, for most of the knitwear points in the Fall/Winter, wool has the higher per centum of use in the garment production.

Figure 2.28 Photomicrographs of wool and silk fibers

Vegetable Fibers

Vegetable fibers are cellulosic fibers, such as cotton. Cotton fibres turn in the boll or seed cod of cotton workss. Different species of cotton workss produce different length of fibers. Long cotton fibers are used in better quality cloths, they are smooth and all right, has higher luster than short cotton fibers. Cotton is comfy because of high absorbency and the ability to convey sweat wet off from organic structure. In the Spring/Summer aggregation, Cotton is extremely used for dress.

Figure 2.29 Photomicrograph of cotton fiber

Mineral Fibers

Mineral fibers such as asbestos ( Figure 2.30 ) are used for sheeting, phase drape and all right covers in fabric use. There are assorted applications of asbestos and broad scopes of use in different states. For the wellness hazards of asbestos fiber production, some merchandises have been discontinued in some states ( Shride, 1973 ) . Glass fibers ( Figure 2.31 ) largely used for as a support fiber, fabric map such as flameproof and fire-proof. Metallic fibers such as metal foil and metal wire have assorted uses. Lurex ( Figure 2.32 ) is a metallic narration produced from metal fiber, extremely used for high manner garment and flushing wear embroidery.

Figure 2.30 Crocidolite asbestos

Figure 2.31 Glass fibers for support

Figure 2.32 Lurex narration

Man-made Fibers

The American Society for Testing and Materials defines the term semisynthetic fibers as “ a category name of assorted genera of fibers ( including fibril ) produced from fibre-forming substances which may be polymers synthesized by adult male from simple chemical compounds, modified or transformed natural polymers and spectacless. ”

Most semisynthetic fibers are thermoplastic, and that means they are softened by heat. They are produced by two types of stuffs, from vegetable beginnings ( cellulosic ) or man-made stuffs.

Cellulosic Man-made Fibers

Cellulosic semisynthetic fibers such as cellulosic ethanoate, which is made from wood mush as a get downing stuff. It has a low strength when moisture and low absorbency. Acetate is various and cheap, largely used in doing satins and brocades. The well-known trade name such as Acele. Visocse rayon, which is a regenerated fiber obtained from soft forests or from the short fibers. Art silk is the name of viscose rayon in the fabric industry. It normally has a high lustre of visual aspect.

Figure 2.33 Photomicrographs of viscose rayon

Man-made Fibers

Man-made fibers are created by coercing through bulge and fiber forming stuffs through spinnerets into the air, organizing a yarn. In the fabric industry, man-made fiber such as nylon, polyester and acrylic are largely used. Nylon is by long ironss of man-made polymers known generically as polymeric amides. In the nylon group, nylon 6 fibers are tough, have high tensile strength, and high snap and luster. Nylon 6 used in fabrication of big assortment of togss, utilizing for knitted garment and hose. The trade name of nylon 6 are Celon and Perlon.

Figure 2.34 Photomicrographs of nylon 6

Yarn Type

Introduction

In knitwear design, narration plays an of import portion of the visual aspect of the garment. The choice types of narrations impacting the wholly expression and temper of a manner.

Narration is formed by meshing of fibers, and suited for assorted textile productions. Narrations may be made from staple fiber or filament fiber. Yarn types are classified into three groups, classified by from of natural stuff, by whirling operations and fiber content.

Material Categorization

The natural stuff of bring forthing the narration classified the type of narration. Yarns that made from staple fibers are utilizing three different whirling systems. They were cotton system, woolen system, worsted system and fibril.

For cotton system, there are two types of cotton narrations ; carded cotton narrations and combed cotton narration. Comparing two types of cotton narrations, combed cotton narration has higher parallel alliance of fiber and luster than carded cotton narration.

For wool fibers, woollen narrations are made from short wool fibers which carded and have lower analogue when comparing to worsted narrations which is formed by longer wool fibers. Worsted narration has higher luster in visual aspect and smooth in manus feel.

Silk formed filament narration among those vegetable fiber, it is smooth and all right. In the same manner as silk fibril, semisynthetic fiber manufactured into fibrils and so into narrations.

Spining Operation Classification

There are assorted types of narrations in whirling operation categorization, for illustration, individual and ply narrations, freshness narrations and textured narrations are the most common narration in the knitwear industry.

Single narration that made from a individual fibril or from a group of basic fibers twisted together. And ply narration is made by writhing together two or more individual narrations. Play narrations are stronger than a individual narration that in the same diameter.

Figure 2.35 Distortion of two-ply narrations

Freshness narrations are made with some constitutional abnormality to give the alone visual aspect or texture. By and large, the smaller the freshness consequence in core-and-effect narrations, the more lasting the formed garment. Boucle narration is one of the most used freshness narration.

Figure 2.36 Samples of freshness narrations

Figure 2.37 Boucle narration

Textured narrations are made from the semisynthetic fibril fibers by treating techniques which give the fibrils a spiral, fold, coil or cringle. The texture gives greater majority, stretch to the narrations, and these narrations are named with its techniques.

Figure 2.37 Illustrated textured narrations

Fibre Content Classification

In the industry, fibre blends and combination contains the mixture of fiber that complements each other to give the needed features. Blended narrations are made of two or more fibers assorted before the narration whirling procedure.

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