Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

The purpose of this paper work is to indicate to the possible usage of hayfields and grazing lands as basic and cheapest fresh fish in the production of fresh fish. In order to enable stable and economic milk and meat production and genteelness offspring, it is necessary to pay attending to the production of quality majority fresh fish and dressed ore. It is besides necessary to make criterions for alimentary value of majority fresh fish which would be required on farms and families. That is the most of import status necessary in accomplishing rational dressed ore mixture usage and take downing nutrient cost and hence accomplishing the production which would be more economic.

Cardinal words: Fodder production, majority fresh fish, fattening of immature cowss, economic production

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Jel: Q10, Q13, Q19

Introduction

Modern cowss engendering production is followed by an intensive fresh fish production on natural hayfields and grazing lands and by fiber production and the production of concentrate mixture. Fodder nutrient are merchandises of works, animate being and mineral beginning produced of course or industrially and its intent is to be used as nutrient for domestic animate beings.

Sing its beginning, chemical construction and energetic values there are:

Fodder nutrient of works beginning or:

Animal provender of carnal beginning or: milk and dairy merchandises, secondary merchandises in meat-packing industry, dog lb merchandises, secondary merchandises in fish canning and processing industry, barm and other beginnings of protein.

Bulk nutrient like: green nutrient, dry majority nutrient, silage, fresh fish nutrient ( root-like, potato-like and other juicy fresh fish ) ,

Concentrate mixtures like: grain fresh fish ( grains, grain of leguminous workss and oil workss ) ,

Merchandises from Secondary Industry ( Flour-milling Industry, Oil industry, Sugar Industry, Alcohol Industry, Starch Industry, Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry etc. ) .

Mineral-rich carnal provender like: table salt, calcium-rich animate being provender, phosphorous-rich animate being provender, calcium-phosphate-rich animate being provender.

Animal provender additives ( microelements, vitamins, antibiotics, fat, urea, preservatives, coloring material, fragrant and other ) .

Industrially produced fiber mixtures which can be: complete, aditional or superconcentates and premixtures.

The production of green majority animate being provender could be realized on natural and unreal lawns, every bit good as on ploughed Fieldss.

Natural lawns are countries covered with workss turning wild ( perennial Papilionaceae ) . The return and quality of green fresh fish on natural lawns are non satisfactory. The most favourable natural lawns ‘ usage is grazing land during summer, when fattening of immature cowss can hold an addition up to one kg per twenty-four hours.

Artificial lawns ( hayfields ) are created by seeding perennial panicle grass ( Cat grass – Dactylis glomerata, Tall fescue – Festuca arundinacea, Timothy grass – Phleum pratense, Meadow fescue – Festuca pratensis, Arrhenatherum elatius and Creeping Red Fescue – Festuca rubra ) and Papilionaceae household ( Luzerne, Fabaceae Red trefoil – Trifolium pratense L. , Bird ‘s pes medic – Lotus corniculatus L. and White clover – Trifolium repens ) . Hayfields are used for grazing land ( during summer ) and for bring forthing beldam. Bulk fresh fish is used green or conserved.

Green fiber workss are Field peas, Fodder Beta vulgaris, Soybean, Lentil, Peas, Vetch, Oilseed colza, Fodder boodle and Cabbage. Drying is the oldest manner of fixing majority carnal provender. Mowed green mass could be dried on the land, devices, moving ridges or little spirals.

Grain straw and leguminosis straw are used as straw and other dry voluminous animate being provender incorporating high per centum of natural cellulose and low concentration of energy and being low digestible. Among juicy and watery voluminous animate being provender, root-like and potato-like are used, since they are carbohydrate carnal provender hapless in mineral ingredients.

Grain carnal provender ( maize, barley, wheat, Sorghum vulgare technicum, rye, oats, millet ) are used as source, or as constituents in concentrate mixture.

The biggest jobs in betterment of animate being provender quality appear because of hapless biocenose, deficient quality agrotechnical steps and frequently regular preservation methods.

Roughage mixture is made by blending wheat, secondary merchandises from Food Industry, Alfalfa flour, mineral ingredients and vitamins. There are complete fiber mixtures, extra fiber mixtures ( ace dressed ores ) and premixes.

Complete fiber mixture contains all necessary ingredients and represents the whole nutrient part. Harmonizing to the Regulations for Fodder Quality for fattening of cowss up to 250 kilograms fiber mixtures must incorporate: at least 14 % of proteins, up to 130 % of H2O and up to 12 % of natural cellulosis. Roughage mixtures for fattening of cowss more than 250 kilograms must incorporate: at least 12 % of protein, up to 13 % of wet, up to 15 % of cellulosis and up to 8 % of ash.

Extra fiber mixtures or ace dressed ores contain all necessary ingredients in high measures, but they represent an add-on to energy carnal provender.

Premixes contain vitamins, mineral ingredients, linear and antibiotics and besides represent an add-on to finish and extra fiber mixtures.

Feed intended for fattening of immature cowss

There are largely 3 types in engineering of fattening of immature cowss and those are: intensive flesh outing up to 400 kilograms, fattening of cowss up to 450 kilograms and fattening of cowss up to 500, 550 to 600 kilogram. An intensive fattening of immature cowss in hilly and cragged part is non recomendable because it is being done largely by utilizing dressed ores and less by utilizing low measures of majority animate being provender.

Fattening of immature cowss whose weight is over 450 kilograms to 550-600 kilogram is more extended. Because the older animate being is, the greater is the weight at the terminal, in other words – it has more clip for longer and more extended eating with majority animate being provender. It is natural that feeding will be based on grazing land during summer and grass silage and hay during winter. In order to accomplish coveted growing addition during flesh outing dressed ore is used as an additive in majority animate being provender in this stage of fattening. Because of the portion of larger measures of majority animate being provender, immature cowss reach the weight up to 450 kilogram subsequently in life, in contrast to the extended fattening, where there are larger measures of dressed ore used.

There are great possibilities for cheaper beef production by utilizing larger measures of quality majority animate being provender, silage above all. There is a turning demand for this type of production because utilizing larger measures of concentrated carnal provender, although the quality is higher and flesh outing faster, consequences in higher production costs. Therefore, the portion of majority animate being provender in fattening of cowss is turning presents and is recomendable. Bulk carnal provender used in modern intensive beef production must make higher quality, in other words must hold higher content of protein and energy. Basic portion in semi-concentrated carnal provender in fields and some hilly parts takes silage of the whole maize works, which should be given unlimitedly, and concentrated mixture which should be given in limited measures. The portion of dressed ore in this type of semi-concentrated fattening is assorted: 50-70 % in dry ingredients and the staying portion ( 30-50 % ) are alimentary ingredients from majority animate being provender. This sort of feeding with biggest possible portion of majority animate being provender being the cheapest beginning of energy enables an addition from 1000 to 1200 g per twenty-four hours. If fattening engineering changed, by utilizing larger measures of animate being provender, fattening of immature cowss would do alteration in concluding weight of fattened cowss and orientation towards older immature beef made of older caput of cowss ( 18-24 months old ) with more weight.

Feeding of flesh outing immature cowss is based on limitless semi-concentrated nutrient parts, maximally utilizing nutrient produced on families.

Regular eating of flesh outing immature cowss is based on cognizing the demands of cowss sing alimentary ingredients and cognizing alimentary values of animate being provender. Meals for flesh outing immature cowss must be: sufficient sing measure, balanced sing alimentary ingredients, assorted, tasty, voluminous plenty and easy handling. Related to the demands, the things that are of import are: part size, energy value expressed by nutritionary value, measure of digestible proteins and measure of Ca, P, NaCl and Mg.

Animal provender criterions

Knowing the demand of immature cowss sing alimentary ingredients, every bit good as cognizing the alimentary values of animate being provender, will enable doing parts of nutrient ( measure of nutrient for 24h ) which will fulfill the demands. To find the demand for alimentary ingredients and set up nutritionary value of carnal provender represents the base of rational domestic animate beings feeding. Food is particularly of import in farm animal production since it is necessary to find production orientation and technological steps on clip and use them during the production of majority animate being provender.

The parts of nutrient should incorporate alimentary ingredients necessary for enabling critical maps ( growing addition ) : saccharides, fat and proteins. In add-on to this, mineral stuff: endocrines, agitations, antibiotics etc. are besides important for carnal being and they are exciting for farm animal production.

The alleged reticent part of nutrient, that satisfies the demands of animate beings sing alimentary ingredients necessary for life, and productional part of nutrient, which enables the coveted meat production with its alimentary ingredients, are being standardized.

The demands of immature cowss being fattened are formed and expressed in many different ways and sometimes merely different strategies and instructions. Animal energy demands are largely expressed in amylum values or oats alimentary units, although there are other systems for gauging alimentary values of fresh fish. Standards for flesh outing immature cowss are expressed in netto energy for meat production ( NEM ) , and size depends on weight and day-to-day growing addition, table 1.

Table 1. The demands related to energy ( NEM ) for fattening of male immature cowss of assorted strain

Body weight

Kg

Daily growing addition

kilogram

NEM

200

1000-1200

29,5 – 32,6

300

1000-1200

40,4 – 44,2

400

1000-1200

49,7 – 54,3

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , ,Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

Protein demands are besides standardized in assorted ways in some states, sing measure every bit good as the manner of showing, largely like digestible natural proteins. The demands of minerals are expressed in lower limit and maximal measures and balanced during the readying of a part of nutrient largely with Ca, P, Na Cl and Mg.

The demands of vitamins, although important, are little sing measure and have n’t been studied adequate. However, vitaminization of carnal provender became a portion of standard technological process in fiber mixtures production and that manner hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis are being prevented.

Cattle invariably need H2O, because H2O represents the largest portion of the organic structure. 60 % in norm at big caputs of cowss and 45-48 % at immature cowss. Cattles are taking H2O through nutrient or being watered, every bit good as let go ofing the alleged metabolic H2O. The feeling of thirst appears at animate beings when organic structure weight becomes 1 % less because H2O has been lost. In any instance it is best that immature cowss being fattened ever have H2O at their disposal ( automatic lacrimation topographic points ) .

Using exciting stuff ( diethylstilboestrol, oxytetracycline and other ) during flesh outing resulted in favourable effects in growing addition, every bit good as in doing usage of nutrient.

The demands expressed in alimentary values ( NV ) for restrained part of nutrient are shown in table 2.

Table 2. Alimentary values ( NV ) for restrained part of nutrient

Weight of cowss

kilogram

Nevada

Weight of cowss kg

Nevada

Weight of cowss kg

Nevada

60

1,2

160

2,2

350

3,7

80

1,4

180

2,4

400

4,0

100

1,6

200

2,6

450

4,3

120

1,8

250

3,0

500

4,6

140

2,0

300

3,3

550

4,9

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , , Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

The Economicss of Fattening

Before orientation towards fattening of immature cowss it is of import to happen out foremost if fattening is economical. The economic sciences of fattening is determined by many factors, foremost of all by the monetary value of calves. If the quality of input stuff for fattening is better, the monetary value will be higher. The value of carnal provender is besides of import, because its portion in the costs of fattening is 70 – 80 % . Therefore the manufacturers who have larger measures of majority animate being provender on their families cut down these costs.

The costs of working labors have up to 10 % of growing addition value in the costs of production. These costs are determined by constructing amortisation, purchase of flesh outing stuff, every bit good as the costs of cattle intervention, machine and device mending etc.

It is necessary to find: balance of cattle purchase and slaughter, herd turnover, nutrient demands, production consequences.

The economic sciences of fattening is measured by the relation between natural nutrient ingestion and the achieved growing addition. In order to find bounds up to which daily nutrient measure per flesh outing caput of cowss should be increased, it is necessary to dtermine the relation between consumed alimentary units and the achieved growing addition. ( Table 3 ) .

The demands expressed in alimentary units per one kologram of growing addition ( BeliA‡ , 1985 ) are shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Alimentary units per one kg of growing addition

Age expressed in months

Nu

Age expressed in months

Nu

1 – 2

2,0

10 – 11

3,4

2 – 3

2,2

12 – 13

3,7

4 – 5

2,5

14 – 15

4,0

6 – 7

2,8

16 – 17

4,4

8 – 9

3,1

18 – 19

4,7

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , , Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

Although the economic system of flesh outing largely depends on consumed measure of cheaper animate being provender, particularly silage, it is non recomended to utilize silage excessively much, because even though greater usage of nutrient is achieved, flesh outing consequence is reduced because flesh outing period is extended.

The fattening of cowss could be wholly based on quality silage. Silage of whole maize is largely used in fattening and it is besides of import the possibility to utilize silage of assorted secondary merchandises in agribusiness and nutrient industry like: caputs and foliages of sugar Beta vulgaris, marc, green nutshell, Beta vulgaris noodles and all in quantites up to 10 – 30kg day-to-day. Albuminous carnal provender, foremost of all soybean midlings and sunflower midlings must be added to these parts of nutrient with silage, or to replace portion of midlings with urea, because of lower costs of nutrient part.

Animal provender must fulfill basic demand to incorporate fresh fish with higher energy concentration. In extended fattening that fresh fish are withered grass silage ( 30-35 % of dry stuff ( DM ) ) and grazing land. If the silage is of hapless quality or authoritative, moist ( non withered ) , little measure of hay must be added which will enable sufficient day-to-day ingestion of dry stuff from bulk fresh fish.

The demands within an intensive fattening of cowss, for an mean day-to-day growing addition of 1000g, expressed in alimentary units and digestible natural proteins are shown in Table 4. and for the day-to-day growing addition of 1200g in Table 5.

Table 4. The demands expressed in NU and digestible natural proteins for day-to-day growing addition of 1000g

The weight of cowss

kilogram

Nu

Digestible natural proteins

per 1NU

120 -180

4,0

500

180 – 250

5,1

600

250 – 350

6,2

700

350 – 400

7,5

800

400 – 500

9,0

850

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , , Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

Table 5. The demands expressed in NU and digestible natural proteins for day-to-day growing addition of 1200 g

The weight of cowss

kilogram

Nu

Digestible natural proteins

per 1NU

120 – 150

4,3

140 – 160

150 – 200

5,5

110 – 130

200 – 250

6,5

90 – 100

250 – 300

7,5

80 – 90

300 – 350

8,3

70 -80

350 – 400

9,2

65 – 75

400 – 450

10,0

60 – 70

450 – 500

10,6

55 – 65

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , , Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

The needed measure of proteins in dry stuff in relation to the weight of cowss is:

for caput of cowss from 120-250 kilogram it is required 14-19 % of protein ( in mean 16 % in entire, or 14,4 % in mixtures ) ,

for caput of cowss from 250-350 kilogram it is required 12-15 % of protein ( in mean 13 % in entire, or 11,7 % in mixtures ) , and

for caput of cowss from 350-450 kilogram it is required 11-14 % of protein ( in mean 12 % in entire, or 10,8 % in mixtures ) .

For the production of “ babe beef ” flesh outing it is really of import to hold high quality mixtures with the same constituents, sing that it represents whole part of nutrient. Mixture could be made on the farm, with constituents made on one ‘s ain land which would surely ensue in cheaper nutrient and hence cheaper production.

The demands for an mean day-to-day growing addition of 1200g in “ babe beef ” fattening are shown in Table 6.

Table 6. The demands expressed in NU and digestible natural proteins for day-to-day growing addition f 1200g for “ babe beef ” fattening

The weight of cowss

kilogram

Nu

Digestible natural proteins

per 1NU

180

4,7 – 6,3

450 -550

225

5,8 – 7,4

550 -640

270

7,0 – 8,4

640 – 720

315

8,0 – 9,3

720 – 770

360

8,7 – 10,1

770 – 860

400

9,2 – 10,5

770 – 860

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , , Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

The demands of minerals and vitamins for fattening of immature cowss are shown in Table 7.

Table 7. The demands of immature cowss flesh outing related to minerals and vitamins

Weight of cowss

kilogram

Ca, gr

P, gr

NaCl, gr

Caroten

milligram

120 -180

20

15

15

50

180 – 250

25

18

20

70

250 – 350

30

20

25

90

350 – 400

35

25

35

120

Beginning: StoliA‡ Novica, Milinko MilenkoviA‡ , : , , Fattening of immature cattle?? , KruA?evac 2000.

Decision

Long-run scheme for cowss engendering and alteration in strain composing, together with equal fresh fish are some of basic pre-conditions for high quality meat production.

Three major factors in every successful farm animal production are:

favorable familial potency

favorable ambient and

nutrient

The most of import factor is feeding with right balance of mixtures, made of high quality natural stuff, while quality and beginning are being controlled.

If there is no entree to animal provender at competitory monetary values, it is really hard to accomplish fight of meat production. In the production of grains and oleaceous workss which represent the base for farm animal production, Serbia is highly competitory and it besides has quality natural grazing lands. However, grazing lands should be available through substructure and improved by fertilisation and extra sowing and the production of concentrated fresh fish made of grains and oleaceous workss should be balanced and improved by quality extra mixtures. In the concatenation from input to concentrated fresh fish, the monetary value is being highly increased, so many manufacturers make mixtures on their farms alternatively of purchasing them, successfully or non.

Insufficiently exploited possibility to utilize grazing lands and produce bulk nutrient and silage is one of features of the production in Serbia, particularly in cowss engendering and sheep raising production. It is necessary to promote manufacturers through agricultural policy steps and educational programmes to cut down costs of production by utilizing nutrient which must be chiefly based on grazing lands in summer and quality majority animate being provender ( hay and silage ) in winter. Far more important engagement of experts is besides necessary, sing betterment of mountain grazing lands, unreal hayfield creative activity and the production of fiber for silage and hay readying, every bit good as betterment in engineering of the production of nutrient used during winter period, which would do nutrient more profitable for manufacturers.

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Harold!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out