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Ethical motives refers to a codification of behavior that guides an person in his relationship with others. It has to make with personal attitude and morality. It is concerned with what is good and bad. In concern it is concerned with regulations and ordinances of good moral and behaviors. The concern community in Nigeria faced so many jobs of moralss which necessitate the demand for the development of ethical codifications of behavior for administrations in Nigeria. Both issues are examined in this paper. Nigerian concern as used in the paper refers to concern administrations situated in Nigeria. It could besides intend prosecuting in concern minutess with persons and concern administrations located in Nigeria

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The survey takes into consideration concern moralss in Nigeria, associating it to what obtained in some of the developed states of the universe, where concerns are really ethically witting.

European concern moralss has a Protestant background. Schumpeter ( 1934 ) linked free endeavor with Protestant moralss that legalized the rational chase of economic additions. The traditional work moralss emphasizes the inherently good nature of work and that by working hard, one can get the better of jobs by roll uping stuff wealth. It holds that God ‘s grace is achieved as one succeeds in life ( Yoder and Staudohar 1982 ) .

In the United States, the faith ethically controlled concern patterns in the 1930s. The spread of concern moralss in the U.S was controlled by a figure of factors, which included the state ‘s abundant natural resources and the impression that America, is God ‘s ain state with abundant chances and the Americans ‘post war nationalism. ( Yoder and Staudohar 1982 ) .

In the Soviet block, moralss took a different dimension. Marxism and socialism were used to solidify the linkage between work as an terminal in itself and the overall development of the society. The Japanese have work moralss that emphasizes excellence branchings. Therefore, concern moralss in assorted topographic points and state of affairs derived from spiritual philosophy, political and economic doctrine, cultural norms and values.

The Islamic states like Iran, Saudi Arabia and Iraq have faith commanding all affairs of concern traffics. Nigerians like Nipponese have imposts and moral values that could be used as edifice blocks in developing concern ethical values. But Nigeria has had vagaries of political and economic instability, and leading forms that had robbed off the application of these values in concern operations. Besides, among the opinion elites, deficiency of moralss is taking to failure and prostration of multi-million dollar public corporations and endeavors.

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.

The survey sought to happen out:

Whether or non

1. Giving preparation to the directors on how to manage ethical issues is of import?

2. Bing ethical improve net income and enhances repute of an administration?

3. Business Ethical motives fused personal and societal duty together

4. Business moralss gives protection to client ‘s employees, little business communities authorities, stockholders and creditors

5. Business moralss must be voluntary, must non be enforced by jurisprudence

6. Business moralss is non followed decently in hapless and developing states due to miss of proper instruction and counsel on moralss.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

The chief aim of the survey was to mensurate how good ethical behavior affects the behavior of staff.

Whether or non there is declined in unethical behavior among the staff based on the attempt of the bank direction to contend corruptness.

It besides sought to set up the gender, age, matrimonial position, and instruction position of respondents.

It besides sought to set up the extent of unethical behavior in relation to the demographic variables listed in 3. Above.

Chapter TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 FROM SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TO BUSINESS ETHICS

The present concern for concern moralss or ethical behavior in the administration is similar to the societal duty argument of the seventiess. Around the mid – 1960s in the U.S, inquiries about the function of concern and arguments about the business-society relationships had reached a high frequence ( Mintzberg, 1982 ) .

In the U.K. , bulk of administrations subscribed to a published codification of pattern and statement of mission, and statement of societal duty. Therefore, codes existed as a important portion of administrations life. However, whether they do or can impact behavior is really much in inquiry.

Gray ( 1990 ) noted that the current concern moralss arguments and the arguments on societal duty before it has failed to ‘take root ‘ where it matters in administrations and authoritiess.

Literature of concern moralss is largely described in footings of persons and in peculiar the opportunism or the moral motive of persons. There is the job of the nature of relationship between single and administration functions, and a consideration for “ single function ” in the administration ( Wilbug, 1988 ) . Administrations on the other manus, are seen as managerialists, where directors have powers in their ain custodies to alter administration to profit their ain involvement. This is a simplistic position. In existent pattern, the procedure of altering the moral or ethical behavior of administration is highly hard and requires careful attack ( Smith, 1982 ) .

Gray ( 1990 ) put frontward two ways of presenting ethical alterations in the society. First is the radical manner. Second, being the market manner which is, slightly unethical and shows no desirable possibilities for the species.

Our treatment of the pattern in U.S.A. and U.K. is non intended to demo that ethical issues are non given the much attending that they require in these states. Rather, it is to demo that there are considerable suites from betterment. Surveies of moralss have been made compulsory classs in the advanced states in establishments of larning based on the belief is that the more you teach or reiterate them, the more they are likely to take root in the Black Marias of the people and accordingly act upon their behavior?

2.2 THE AFRICAN SITUATION

Africa is the universe third largest continent, after Asia and America. It has a population of over 600 million people, which is about 10 % of the universe population. In footings of Development, nevertheless it is the poorest. It is prone to disease and plague and place to big population of refugees because of struggles. These struggles are chiefly due to cultural or spiritual dogmatism, posed by undiscipline or unethical behaviors. It is important to observe that soon about all African states are ravaged by one signifier of socio-political perturbation or the other ( Umaru, 2000 ) . It is obvious that African states have tremendous ethical jobs which are presently the end product of political instability, deficiency of resources and miss-application of resources, negative work wonts and unethical behavior. The consequences are deficiency of and slow gait of economic development.

2.3 NIGERIA EXPERIENCE

Lack of committedness to ethical behavior is so tremendous and a large concern for excellence and autonomy in Nigeria and in Nigerian Organisations. The greatest socioeconomic jobs in Nigeria and so Africa, which must be address, are that of dislocation in ethical motives, work moralss, subject, societal duty and general civility among its citizens ( Akinyemi 2002 ) .

Ethical jobs have forced assorted authoritiess in Nigeria since the 1976 disposal to present one signifier of statute law or the other to control this monster.

Since 1997 and up to 2003, Nigeria had systematically been listed as one of the corrupt states in the universe by Transparency international. In its 2001 one-year corruptness index released by Transparency International ( TI ) , Nigeria was 2nd to the Asiatic state of Bangladesh. The reported study of 91 states ranked Nigeria 90th while Bangladesh ranked 91st. Other states in the underside ranked provinces were ; Uganda, Indonesia, Kenya, Cameroun, Bolivia, Ukraine, and Tanzania. Ranking of some other African states were Zambia 25, Zimbabwe 65, Malawi 61, South Africa 38 and Namibia 30. Botswana had the lowest sensed corruptness rate of any underdeveloped state and was no. 30 on the index. Rich states topped the clean list as they had the lowest degree of public corruptness. The cleanest were Finland, Denmark, New Zealand, Iceland Singapore, Sweden, Canada, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Norway, while Haiti, a little Island in the Caribbean topped the list of corrupt states in the universe. Coming 2nd and 3rd were Berman and Iraq severally, while Bangladesh was in the 8th place in the list released by Transparency International. Nigeria did non do the list of the 10 most corrupt states that twelvemonth.

Eso ( 2007 ) described the anti-corruption officers of the EFCC and Independent Corrupt Practices Commission ( ICPC ) of the President Olusegun Obasanjo ‘s government as extremely disciplined officers.

Asiatic states such as Pakistan and Singapore were at the same degree of economic development as Nigeria at independency but produced enterprisers who responded positively to authorities economic policies, therefore doing the states better developed than Nigeria ( Ogundele 2000 ) . The comparatively lower degree of development in Nigeria was partially connected to Acts of the Apostless of undiscipline which were unethical behaviors.

A comprehensive description and analysis of unethical concern patterns in Nigeria including electronic fraud was given by Ogundele and Opeifa ( 2004 ) . In another survey by Joseph ( 1991 ) it was suggested oil grosss that were available for investing intent, if decently used, could hold Placed Nigeria among industrialised states of the universe.

The assorted governmental enterprises and actions and the authorship of concerned citizens were targeted at guaranting and seting in topographic point an ethically nice society.

The present survey of ethical behavior efforts to set up how far Nigerians and Nigerian administrations have moved towards set uping good ethical behavior in the person. Ekpo-Ufot ( 1990 ) survey of ethical behavior in Lagos State among prison inmates, the seminary and the general populace and Ogundele ( 1999 ) survey of ethical behavior in the primary, secondary and third educational establishments in Lagos and Oyo State service as benchmark for this current survey.

2.4 ATTEMPTS BY PAST GOVERNMENTS AT CURBING CORRUPTION AND BRIBERY AND OTHER ACTS OF INDISCIPLINE IN NIGERIA

During General Murtala Muhammed ‘s government in 1975, big figure of people were either dismissed or forced into retirements due to one signifier of corruptness or another. President Shehu Shagari asserted that “ graft, corruptness, and deficiency of dedication to responsibility, dishonesty and all such frailties were the major jobs of his disposal. ( Enahoro, 1982 ) .

General Muhammed Buhari ‘s government came up with a Decree on War against Indiscipline ( WAI ) , instituted to set an terminal to unethical behavior in both public and private administrations in 1984. This was nevertheless suddenly terminated by General Ibrahim Babangida in 1985 and ushered in a plan in the Directorate of Mass Mobilisation for Social justness and economic recovery. ( MAMSER ) . General Sani Abacha replaced MAMSER with National Orientation Agency ( NOA ) in 1993. The aim was to guarantee ethical and loyal behavior by persons and administrations in Nigeria. Another administration called, the Independent Corrupt Practices and other Offenses Commission ( ICPC ) was established in 2000 by General Olusegun Obasanjo 2nd government. Again in 2004, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission ( EFCC ) was established both aimed at controling unethical behavior in the society.

Several concerned bookmans had come up one aspect ethical jobs or the other with ( Osahon { 1981 } , Oji { 1982 } , Nwankwo { 1985 } , Bolaji { 1985 } , Ezewu { 1985 } , Nzeribe { 1986 } , Ayagi { 1990 } , ) .

Ike ( 2002 ) noted that it is of import to clear up and reenforce nucleus values and to guarantee that the organizational systems, policies and processs support and contribute to ethical behavior for investing intent.

From the predating it is clear that Nigeria concern administrations, with current unethical patterns in their environment, are at a disadvantage in planetary concern patterns which demand ethical behavior.

Joseph ( 1991 ) declared that no 1 can carry on the personal businesss of any office satisfactorily whether in authorities, private concern and even civic administration if the first, in-between and the last concern of such an person is how he or she can pull out ultimate personal stuff benefit from everyday minutess. This description typifies common patterns in most private and public administrations in Nigeria.

Chapter THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1 THE STUDY AREA

The survey being reported was conducted at anchor Bank Limited, normally referred to as Keystone Bank, is a commercial bank in Nigeria. The bank is one of the commercial Bankss licensed by the Central Bank of Nigeria, the national banking regulator.

Keystone Bank offers banking services to big corporations, public establishments, small-to-medium endeavors ( SMEs ) and persons. The bank is a big fiscal services provided in Nigeria. As of January 2012, the exact plus rating of the bank and the rating of its shareholding are non publically known.

On Friday 05 August 2011, Keystone Bank Limited was issued a commercial banking licence by the Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) . On the same twenty-four hours, CBN revoked the banking licence of Bank PHB. Keystone Bank assumed the assets and some liabilities of the now defunct Bank PHB.

The bank is 100 % owned by the Asset Management Corporation of Nigeria ( AMCON ) , and maintains a web of over 200 concern offices and locations in all the provinces of Nigeria.

Respondents included people working in the bank and clients of the bank. Besides, both direction and operative forces were involved. The chief aim was to mensurate the extent good ethical behavior has affect the behavior of staff and whether or non there is declined in unethical behavior among the staff based on the attempt of the bank direction to contend corruptness.

It besides sought to set up the gender, age, matrimonial position, employment position, and instruction position distribution of respondents. It besides sought to set up the extent of unethical behavior in relation to the demographic variables listed supra.

Consequently the major hypotheses tested in the survey were

H1: Gender will be positively related to unethical behavior

H2: Age will be positively related to unethical behavior

H3: Marital Status will be positively related to unethical behavior

H4: Educational position will be positively related to unethical behavior

3.2 RESEARCH METHODS

3.2.1 PROCEDURES AND SAMPLE

The research design is explorative in nature, where questionnaires were used to obtain responses from the respondents. The research activities for informations aggregation were carried in August 2012. The pick of respondent was flexible, but they must be grownup and intelligent persons. A sum of 100 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 95 were returned. There were, nevertheless, some losing informations points due to few unreciprocated inquiries by respondents.

The research instrument consisted of two major parts: Section A contained 5 points that were measured utilizing graduated tables such as Strongly Agree ( SA ) to Strongly Disagree ( SD ) ; and simple yes or no in some inquiries while Section B contained 10 points on moralss.

3.2 DATA ANALYSIS

The survey employed per centum steps of cardinal inclination and dispersion of the reading of each variable. Univariate analysis was employed to mensurate interaction effects among the demographic variables. A one-way analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) statistical tool was used to analyze the different groups of responses that were measured on interval graduated tables.

Chapter FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Consequences are featured in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. As shown below:

Table 1.0 Demographic informations in regard of respondents.

variables

Frequency

per centum

Gender of the respondents

Male

62

65

Female

33

35

Entire

95

100

Table 2: Marital Status of the respondents

Marital position

Frequency

per centum

Singless

43

45

Married

49

52

Divorced

entire

3.0

95

3.0

100

Table 3.0: Educational background of the respondents

Educational degree

Frequency

per centum

Primary

17

18

Secondary

38

40

Third

40

42

Entire 95 100

Table 4.0: Departmental distribution of Respondents in the bank.

Department

frequence

per centum

Administration

5.0

5.3

Operation

10.0

10.5

Security

7.0

7.4

Conveyance

2.0

2.1

Others ( clients )

71.0

74.7

entire

95

100

Table 5.0: One-way analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) to prove for Hypotheses 1-4.

Sum of square

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig

Gender Between Groups

Within Groups

Entire

22.05

600.51

622.56

61.4

2521

2582.4

.350

.236

1.483

.009

Age Between Groups

Within Groups

Entire

52.02

1808.05

1860.25

62

2436

2498

.837

.742

1.127

.233

Marital Status Between Groups

Within Groups

Entire

18.11

781.26

799.38

62

2540

2602

.292

.308

.949

.590

Educational Status Between Groups

Within Groups

Entire

25.12

1121.12

1146.24

62

2530

2592

1.169

.806

1.451

.013

4.2 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

An scrutiny of table 1.0 shows that 65 % and 35 % of respondents were male and female severally. Refering matrimonial position, 45 % were individual, 52 % married and the staying 3.0 % were divorced respondents. The distribution of the units showed that 5.3 % were in Administration ; 7.4 % were in security ; 10.5 % were operations staff ; 2.1 % were in the conveyance while the staying 74.7 % were clients of the bank.

The educational makings of most of the respondents are such that they are educated adequate and could sufficiently react to the issues raised in the questionnaire.

The findings further shows that with regard to gender, both males and females participated, the same reading clasp for matrimonial position as seen in table 2. These determination shows that bulk of the respondents believed that good ethical behavior enhanced public presentation in one manner or the other. This determination is in understanding with Epo-Ufot ( 1990 ) and Ogundele ( 1999 ) reported determination.

The degree of educational attainment distribution as shown in table 3 indicated that 40 % have attained secondary school certification, third and Primary educational makings accounted for 42 % and 18 % severally.

Table 4.0 besides shows that the respondents of the survey were widely distributed across classs runing from administrative staff ; security staff ; operations staff ; transport staff and clients of the bank. The responses could hence be seen as being representative of the positions of bulk of Nigerians.

The deductions of these findings are that policies and programmes, or schemes and tactics that would be designed to alter organizational member behavior should be of three wide classs, viz: ( 1 ) Those that will deter unethical behavior through the procedures of countenances and reform of administration members ‘ behavior, ( 2 ) those that will honor administration member for model Acts of the Apostless of ethical behavior, and ( 3 ) those that should concentrate on developing desired value behavior in the members of the administration through ethical re-orientation.

Chapter FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Decision

It should be noted that moralss has really strong nexus with instruction. In fact if instruction is to carry through its intent of catering for some facets of social demands, it must of necessity be involved with morality to a really high grade, otherwise it will make more injury than good to the society. This is what is go oning particularly in Nigeria and most other African states.

Therefore, to be relevant and take advantage of globalisation, Nigerian Organisations must learn moralss to their people at all degrees. They should besides guarantee that moralss is practiced in all domains of life.

The consequence of this survey shows that good ethical behavior is prevailing among staff of Keystone bank Nigerian. There are still some challenges in dealingss with staff ‘s interaction with other portion of the consumers. Lack of ethical behavior leads to unpredictable behavior in our economic, political and other interactions with foreign administrations. This could take to miss of attraction of investing chances to foreign investor to come to Nigerian on the one manus. On the other manus, the cost of pulling foreign investing will go higher in Nigeria vis-a-vis other parts of the universe. We hereby urge the three schemes outlined above to alter the attitude of unethical behavior to desirable ethical behavior by Nigerians and Nigerian administrations.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

The publicity of good concern moralss should take topographic point in both private and public administrations and all weaponries of authorities. This is because most private administrations and authorities bureaus in Nigeria are non decently aligned with values, moral and even strong beliefs that build a strong, secure, healthy and comfortable state. When states, societies and other signifiers of administrations, loose their sense of intent and significance, so confusion, defeat, disheartenment, disenchantment and corporate self-destruction whether gradual or instant, reign ( Munroe, 2001 ) . The deficiency of necessary development in the society at big confirms the above averment. Our accent should be on extremist or radical alterations concentrating on specific issues, establishments and construction. We can non propose ethical codifications without turn toing the structural jobs that exist. It will be like the World Bank prescription of structural accommodation for Nigeria and other African states where the constructions are non in being in the first topographic point.

Two wide attacks are suggested here:

Reducing unethical concern patterns

Developing ethical behavior and codifications of ethical behavior.

5.2.1 REDUCING UNETHICAL BUSINESS PRACTICES

Two phase attacks are suggested in this regard, which includes:

Rigorous Sanctions: This procedure calls for the infliction of terrible and appropriate penalty mated out on persons and administrations that break concern and societal moralss. These penalties must be rapid and decisive plenty to function as hindrance to other prospective wrongdoers. If people are non punished for offenses committed, it tends to promote commission of unethical behaviors. Our jurisprudence enforcement bureaus and legal system have major duties in this facet. Rigorous countenances could be sufficient to deter unethical behaviors. In Nigeria, this was the order of the twenty-four hours during the Buhari/Idiagbon government, 1983-1985. During that period with effectual enforcement of countenances against economic and societal wrongdoers, people were witting of interrupting Torahs, regulations, ordinances, etc. that were designed for the good of all.

Reward of Excellence or Outstanding Ethical Behaviour: when persons who exhibited outstanding act of disciplined behaviors such should be rewarded in position and in sort. Such gesture on the portion of appropriate governments, establishments or persons will actuate others to be ethical in their behavior. Oshunkeye ( 1991 ) reported that a cab driver returned N20, 500.00 which a concern adult female forgot in his auto to the proprietor. Such an outstanding act of honestness should be rewarded quickly.

5.2.2. DEVELOPING ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

This is a deep frozen attack to alter the perceptual experience, values and orientation of the society in general and the operations of concern administrations in peculiar. Three wide attacks are suggested, viz. :

General development of ethical behavior in persons, groups and administrations.

Developing ethical codifications for assorted professionals and adhering to such codifications.

Regenerating the civilization of excellence.

General development of ethical behavior in persons, groups and administrations: This calls for monolithic preparation and development in Schools, Colleges, Polytechnics and Universities. At the primary and secondary school degrees, a topic such as Moral doctrine should be made a compulsory topic. It is here being suggested that it should even be made one of the compulsory topics at the school certification degree. In colleges of instruction, engineering schools and Universities, Ethical motives should be made a mandatory sub-course film editing across all the assorted subjects. Education is the foundation of the development of any society. Education besides kills the predicament of disease, ignorance, superstitious notion, fright and accordingly poorness. Equally, administration members ( public and private ) from the lowest to the highest degrees should travel through intensive preparation and development and re-training and re-development that are designed to leave ethical values. They should every bit be encouraged to set such preparation into pattern in their day-to-day activities.

Development of ethical codifications for assorted professionals and adhering to such codifications: It is worthy to observe that professional organic structures e.g. medical specialty, accounting, technology, jurisprudence, etc have ethical codifications of behavior. The same can non be said of concern administrations or Chamberss of commercialism and industry in Nigeria. To reconstruct saneness into their operations and to gain reputability from the outside universe and prospective foreign investors, private and public administrations in Nigeria need to manner out codifications of moralss. As reported earlier on in this paper, ethical issues are large challenges to administrations in Nigeria and as such, must be addressed earnestly. A serious job requires an every bit serious solution.

Recognitions

I would wish to thank my coach Clive Findley for his aid over the past 3 old ages. This assignment has encompassed some portion of each and every faculty of the HND path and could non hold been complied otherwise.

I would farther wish to admit the aid of anchors bank director Mr Aliyu Umar and Ahmed Marafa all staffs of anchors bank for their aid and support.

The Costumers of anchor bank, for supplying their positions and sentiments

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