Prisons as topographic points of want of autonomy have existed since clip immemorial, yet prisons as we know them today – topographic points where wrongdoers are sent by the Criminal Justice System as a penalty for their behavior -are a merchandise of the industrial age ( Maguire et al, 2005 ) . “ Ideally ” the ground behind the imprisonment is harmonizing to Section 142 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 ( cited in Elliott and Quinn ) to penalize, deter and rehabilitate the wrongdoer. The chief purposes of these three countries is concerned with the acknowledgment that the felon has done something incorrect. It so locates them in an establishment which by taking away their freedom, is designed to discourage them from farther offenses upon release, penalize them for the offense already committed, and so attempts to rehabilitate them, so that they are less likely to perpetrate farther offenses upon release, either because they learn to see the injury they have caused, or because, through instruction and preparation, they find other ways to pass their clip. The procedure of rehabilitation would ‘change ‘them into jurisprudence staying citizens. What is more it is believed that it would carry other ‘potential ‘ felons that such activates are non ‘beneficial ‘ – in other words it would discourage people from perpetrating farther offense ( Elliott and Quinn,2008 ) . While in theory such an thought seems to absolutely suit the intent of penalty, in pattern important sums of negative experience such as intensive growing of intimidation and mental wellness jobs, are present within the prison ‘s environment, together with overcrowding and hapless life conditions, neglecting to present the successful processing of such a program ( Elliot and Quinn, 2008 ) . The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast causes of mental wellness and intimidation in prison, every bit good as detect any, if possible, links between strong-arming and mental wellness among captives
Farrington defined strong-arming as the ‘ perennial subjugation of a less powerful individual by a more powerful one ‘ . He claimed that it normally includes three different elements. The first component includes physical, verbal or psychological onslaught with purpose to do injury, fright or hurt. The 2nd is an instability of power, where a more powerful individual is suppressing the less powerful one, and thirdly it includes a uninterrupted series of incidents between these same people over some period of clip. Mental wellness is defined in Section 1 ( 2 ) of the Mental Health Act 1983 as ‘ Mental unwellness, arrested or in completed development of head, psychopathologic upset and another upset or disablements of head ” . Although as shown above there is a immense difference in what constitutes strong-arming and mental wellness, there is no uncertainty that both of them can be caused by similar factors such as societal and environmental causes ( for illustration overcrowding ) , physical causes and psychological causes ( Ireland,2002 ; WHO, 1998 ) .
The physical environment in prisons such as overcrowding, quality of adjustment, handiness of contact with friends and household, deficiency of stimulation in the signifier of activities, may hold an impact on the captive ‘s mental wellness every bit good as lending to the development of strong-arming in prison. Harmonizing to Maguire et Al. ( aˆ¦ ) the imprisonment rate in England and Wales is the highest in Western Europe, and harmonizing to the official prison statistics for England and Wales the entire prison population has increased from around fifty-one 1000 in 1995 to over 84 thousand in 2009. What is more overcrowding in prisons may take to increased depression, emphasis, ennui and nervous dislocation, taking to serious breaches of prison subject, force and public violences. The cause of prison overcrowding and an addition in the prison population is a consequence of a greater figure of strong beliefs and the absence of the handiness of prisons topographic points. Further every bit of import factors are alteration in condemnable justness policy, fastening of countenances, ensuing in longer prison sentences. Reducing financess for the prison besides indirectly cause aggression among captives. ( though lessA staff, A causingA tensionA amongA overworkedA staff, which so affects the inmates ) . Prisons have a limited capacity, and the captives have certain rights that should non be violated. Factors such as deficiency of autonomy, as in many of the prisons where captives are locked-up for 20 three hours a twenty-four hours, deficiency of, or limited, communicating with friends and household, normally without any privateness, all contribute to the job. What is more, prisons take away the captives ‘ free will. They can no longer freely decided where to populate, with whom to tie in and how to make full their free clip and must follow the subject imposed by prison regulations and prison officers.
Physical causes such as their single features or biological makeup may hold some influence on the causes of bulling and mental wellness in prisons. Harmonizing to Ireland ( 2002 ) captives largely come from societal environments where accent is placed on stamina and the ability to protect oneself and when come ining prison these features are magnified. However such behaviors while being in prison may be linked with strong-arming other normally weaker and disturbed inmates ( Irleand, 2002 ) Harmonizing to Farrington ( aˆ¦ ) the people who tend to bully are more likely to hold kids who will be toughs, and people who tend to be the victims of strong-arming tend to hold kids who will go the victim of intimidation. The same may use to prison inmates who tend to be weak, with low self-prides and with a low capacity for get bying with the prison environment and they are more likely to go victims of strong-arming than people who are characterized as strong, confident and aggressive. Besides single familial makeup might set some captives more at hazard than others to endure from mental unwellness or go victims of strong-arming because they are less able to accommodate or get by with certain environments or they become one of the toughs as they possess the physical accomplishments which give captives the ability to bully others physically, verbally or indirectly. Furthermore those enduring from any hurts while being in prison, which may hold been caused by being involved in a battle with another captive, can besides see alterations to their personality and in some instances may do the beginning of schizophrenic disorder, psychosis or ego injury.
Psychological factors such as a captive ‘s emotional and mental province of head, particularly when the captive has experienced any signifier of physical or sexual maltreatment or there have been any other potentially traumatic events in the past can impact his behavior in prison. While there is a immense proportion of captives enduring from such trauma prior to imprisonment, many will see such injury as an consequence of imprisonment ( Crighton and Towl, 2008 ) . Generally prisons are rough topographic points, where subject and modus operandi are the kernel of day-to-day life doing being in prison to be a nerve-racking experience. Additionally harmonizing to ( Crighton and Towl, 2008 ) captives appear to be at a high degree of hazard with factors associated with hapless traumatic responses from childhood onwards. . Psychological factors particularly emotional responses ( Irleand, 2002 ) in footings of intimidation will likely be heightened for the victims. Prisons can be aggressive and baleful environments particularly for the first clip captives. They may be fearful of what may go on to them. Undeniably fright is seen as a necessary constituent in definitions of strong-arming in the prison environment. Furthermore fright may impact captives ‘ other emotions such as anxiousness, jitteriness and feelings of humbleness which may expose behaviourally through self injury or societal turning away.
Despite the similarities in causes for mental wellness and intimidation in prison we can besides see differences. One of them is unquestionable the difference between the definition of mental wellness and the definition of strong-arming. Likewise one time in prison, captives enter a extremely structured societal environment that negotiates for power and laterality, where laterality over other weaker inmates is one manner of deriving credence, satisfaction, position and regard among other captives. Hence intimidation is frequently seen as a normal portion of prison life that helps to derive this laterality over other inmates. Furthermore toughs who remain at the top of the hierarchy among other inmates, through their laterality will frequently acquire other captives to run errands and do occupations for them which are against prison government, and so they can remind unidentified and therefore will non be punished. While the status of an person ‘s mental wellness consists of a figure of different factors and elements. mental wellness is chiefly our opposition to all of our hard state of affairss, events, phenomena and our emotional and psychological endurance partially depends upon an person ‘s ability to digest the wants of prison. Additionally harmonizing to Viggiani ( 2007 ) most captives come from the poorest or most socially excluded grades of society and frequently have the greatest wellness demands. Prison may hence be the worst topographic point to direct them given that, in the chief, they are likely to be extremely vulnerable or susceptible to hapless wellness, hence mental upsets. Mental upset may besides be the cause of perpetrating the offense, and therefore imprisonment. As Rubin ( 1972:398 cited inaˆ¦ ) says ‘certain mental upsets are characterized by some sort of baffled, eccentric, agitated, endangering, frightened, panicked, paranoiac or unprompted behaviors and as a effect they may take to inappropriate, anti-social or unsafe Acts of the Apostless. Individual mental wellness may be managed and treated either by medicine or different intervention plans ( enchiridion ) , while in order to forestall strong-arming prisons should concentrate on doing alterations to the prison ‘s environment which would include altering the supervising of the captives country, increased security for commanding and monitoring, educating staff and captives about intimidation, bettering communicating between prison staff, or even increasing the stimulation for captives. This include raising the figure and qualities of activities and plans available for captives.
Undoubtedly, despite the similarities and differences between intimidation and
mental wellness, one may take to the other ( Ireland, 2002 ; Farrington, aˆ¦ . ) . As mentioned above strong-arming constitutes aggressive behavior in which an person manipulates and dominates others in order to obtain a end, whether it is societal or material. In order to sort the behavior as strong-arming it must stand for repeated and motiveless Acts of the Apostless of aggression, which include physical, verbal or psychological onslaught ( Irleand,2002 ; Farrington, aˆ¦. ) . Indeed bulling can do immediate injury and hurt to victims and have negative effects on their mental wellness. Victims may experience psychologically or physically hard-pressed and experience hurting, and captives who have been the victims of intimidation may see a scope of feelings such as choler, fright, anxiousness, paranoia, hurt, hopelessness or depression ( Ireland,2002 ) which can take to avoidance, societal isolation and hence mental unwellness in captives.
In decision despite the ‘idea ‘ that prisons should rehabilitate and alter wrongdoers into jurisprudence staying citizens, we can see that prison is a modern signifier of bondage no affair what its ideological justification is. Prisoners ‘ mental wellness and intimidation is a turning job in prisons. Alternatively of rehabilitating and altering captives into good managed and good behaved citizens, in many instances it changes them into more aggressive and troublesome dwellers really frequently with physical and mental jobs, which makes it harder for them to reintegrate with the society and with present times.