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African Diamond Wars Essay, Research Paper

How is it possible that a bantam, C based rock could consequence the lives of 1000000s upon 1000000s of Africans, every bit good as the economic systems of legion African states so drastically? The reply lies within human nature and our infatuation with these so called, valuable, pieces of Earth. To have a diamond is the dream of infinite people

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through out the universe, but what most are non cognizant of, is the monetary value that could hold been paid to convey the treasure to their custodies. Countless guiltless civilians have lost their lives ; merely so that particular person can look good for the dark. Not all diamonds that come out of Africa are from countries in struggle, but it is estimated that up to 10-15 % of the universe s unsmooth diamonds do. ( NY Times ) This is a chilling statistic that should do a possible diamond buyers think before he or she buys.

In many parts of Africa, diamonds are the lone means of industry. There are mines controlled by the authoritiess, Rebel groups and at the same clip hapless and despairing Africans dig through stones in watercourse, trusting to happen that one diamond that will feed their households for the hebdomad. Despite all of the force and ferociousness, gross revenues of diamonds really rose 11 % in 1999. In fact, Americans buy over half of the universes diamond jewellery. ( NY Times ) These statistics point to the fact that most of the universe is nescient to the force and ferociousness happening invariably in states such as Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Yet while diamonds fuel struggle in these states, they fuel the stable economic systems in states such as Namibia and Botswana.

Angola has the possible to be a affluent developed African state since it possesses big crude oil and diamond militias, but due to about four decennaries of war, remains to be earnestly developing. ( Lewis ) The state of Angola is possibly the most conflicted part in the whole continent. UNITA, National Union for the Entire Independence of Angola, is a rebel organisation lead by Dr Jonas Savimbi. This group has been in conflict with MPLA, or the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for control over the state. Their conflict has been traveling on for 20 old ages now and has left Angola littered with land mines, 10-20 million to be precise. Countless guiltless civilians lose their lives every twenty-four hours due to set down mines. Many strategic analysts believe that a large-scale civil war could repeat due to UNITA s involuntariness to turn over its many diamond mines to the Angolan MPLA authorities under President Eduardo Dos Santos. ( Lewis )

The U.S. really backed UNITA during the Cold War because of Russia s engagement with the MPLA. As the Cold War eventually came to an terminal UNITA lost most of its military support. In 1992, Savimbi lost an election for control of the Angolan authorities and the place of presidential term. In a show of protest and an accusal that the MPLA committed election fraud, Savimbi resumed his guerilla war against the Angolan authorities in October of 1992. UNITA controlled more than half of Angola s national district by 1993. ( Lewis ) For the following two old ages Angola was plagued with dearth and disease. Land mines created barriers to agriculture and in consequence brought on mass famishment. In 1994, Santos and Savimbi signed the Lusaka Protocol. This pact called for the continued attempt of both groups to keep peace. Despite this call for peace UNITA continues to illicitly put diamonds into the universe market. It is non known when belligerencies will discontinue, if at all. Angola produced merely over five million carats in 1998, at an mean monetary value of $ US 136/ carat. ( MBendi )

As a consequence of UNITA s incursion into the diamond market, the Angolan authorities s diamond sector, the Endiama Corporation, loses net incomes and is forced to undertake jobs of mining belongings. Angola s Endiama Corporation hopes that UNITA leaders will hold to set up legitimate private diamond excavation houses that will non endanger the economic system of the Angolan authorities. ( Lewis ) The Endiama Corporation, a province run company, mines the bulk of Angola s diamond end product. The diamonds that come out of Angola are known worldwide for their quality. Many analysts agree that if there was no intervention from groups such as UNITA, Angola could perchance be ranked among the largest manufacturers of diamonds in the universe. This is a authoritative illustration of the consequence that civil war and market circulation jobs can hold on a states economic system. The pandemonium that goes on in Angola is taken advantage of by people looking to acquire rich, by buying illicitly mined diamonds and puting them into the universe market.

Although the bulk of UNITA members and leaders have followed the Lusaka Protocol, many have non abided by the pact. the Lunda part contains those powerful UNITA leaders who do non desire to lose their economic power to the Angolan MPLA authorities. ( Lewis ) A big bulk of the mines that UNITA controls are non being handed over to the MPLA run authorities, which is the program of the Protocol, merely because many UNITA leaders will non give up their battle. This drastically affects the economic system of Angola due to the fact that a good part of the diamonds that come out of the state are done so by illegal agencies. This can merely ache the state s economic system.

Many stairss have been taken to seek and hold UNITA s efforts to recover its old power. Endiama has established a partnership with the universe s most powerful diamond excavation corporation, DeBeers. The end of DeBeers is to purchase up the illicitly produced treasures before they leave the state. ( Lewis ) To protect legitimate mines from UNITA onslaughts, DeBeers and Endiama have hired 100s of South African soldier of fortunes. This helps the authorities run mines bring forth more diamonds to assist stabilise Angola s presently weak economic system.

De Beers is to the full supportive of the purposes of the assorted organic structures seeking to deny Rebel motions entree to diamond markets and to this terminal has:

1. ) Operated in rigorous conformity with UN Resolution 1173 associating to the sale of diamonds by the UNITA Rebel motion in Angola

2. ) Ceased purchasing diamonds in Angola from the informal sector of the economic system

5. ) Systematically and publically urged the trade to avoid purchasing any diamonds arising from countries controlled by Rebel motions. ( DeBeers )

Presently, DeBeers is the obvious universe monopoly on diamonds. A possible challenger is the Brazilian based Odebrecht Mining Services, or OMS. This company was given mining rights to the diamond rich Cuango Valley, by the Angolan authorities. It merely so happens that Cuango Valley is one of UNITA s most powerful fastnesss. UNITA could non be removed from the country and OMS continues to seek and negociate for the land. If UNITA did retreat from the Luzamba in the Cuango Valley, and the excavation rights went to OMS, DeBeers would get down to lose its monopoly of diamonds. ( Lewis ) The difference over diamonds in Africa does non merely affect groups such as UNITA and MPLA, but major corporations as good. These corporations can assist excite the economic system of Angola such as DeBeers by using locals and exciting concern. If it weren T for UNITA, Angola s economic system would decidedly be in a better province.

Another tactic to control the illegal gross revenues of diamonds out of conflicted parts is a new enfranchisement program. Representatives from major diamond bring forthing states created the program, which certifies that all diamonds bought on the market, do non hold beginnings from Rebel groups. Under the program, all diamonds sold on the universe market would hold to be accompanied by a certification corroborating their beginnings. Estimates on the Rebels & # 8217 ; portion of the $ 6 billion a twelvemonth international diamond trade scope from 4 per centum to 15 per centum. ( CNN ) Plans such as these, warrant the buyer that the diamond being bought has a legitimate history. The work [ on the program ] was necessary, non merely to halt the flow of money to arise groups, but besides to reconstruct consumer assurance in the treasures and guarantee the endurance of the diamond industry. ( CNN )

Recently, UNITA has made peace proposals to the Angolan authorities to stop the civil war. The MPLA run authorities responded by stating that the stoping of the war all depends upon the puting down of UNITA s arms. Aid bureaus say at least five-hundred-thousand people have died and about two-point-seven-million have been forced to fly their places because of the combat UNITA has shown marks for some clip of desiring to re-start negotiations with the MPLA authorities after enduring a series of military lickings. ( BBC ) If UNITA were out of the image, who knows how Angola s economic system would react. With no intervention the Angolan economic system could turn to be one of the most powerful in the continent.

The sad truth is that the difference described above is merely the struggle traveling on in Angola. There are several other African states with similar but separate jobs with diamond wars. Another state that is in terrible struggle is Sierra Leone. Between 1991 and 1999, the war claimed over 75,000 lives, caused half a million Sierra Leoneans to go refugees, and displaced half of the state & # 8217 ; s 4.5 million people. ( PACNET ) While the struggle in Angola is based chiefly upon a race for control of the authorities, the wrangle in Sierra Leone is fueled chiefly by money. The point of the war may non really have been to win it, but to prosecute in profitable offense under the screen of warfare. ( PACNET )

Up until the 1980 s DeBeers was straight involved with diamond trade in Sierra Leone. Now there are no DeBeers offices held in Sierra Leone but it is believed that many of the diamonds still being mined there come through DeBeers custodies indirectly from other states such as Liberia and Guinea. This is possible because diamonds can be smuggled out of Sierra Leone and into these other states and so exported to topographic points like Belgium for circulation into the universe market.

Antwerp, Belgium is the universe s epicentre for diamond exchange. More than half of the universe s unsmooth diamonds come through Antwerp, where all diamond trading is overseen by the Hoge Raad voor Diamant, or the High Diamond Council. This group s chief end is to keep Antwerp s credibleness as the universe centre for diamond trade. The HRD efforts to command diamond smuggling by entering the beginnings of the diamonds they obtain. There is a little job with this though. The HRD records the beginning of a diamond as the state from which the diamond was last exported. Therefore diamonds produced in Sierra Leone, say, may be officially imported and registered as arising in Liberia, Guinea, Israel or the UK, depending on their journey from one trading centre to another. ( PACNET ) This does non truly assist to halt the illegal smuggling of diamonds out of Sierra Leone. Although DeBeers claims that none of its diamonds have beginnings from Sierra Leone, there is no genuinely accurate manner to state.

An African state that will be farther looked into subsequently in this study is Liberia. This state is though to be the universe s centre for illicitly smuggled diamonds. Diamonds produced in states such as Sierra Leone, where there are diamond trade stoppages, can be smuggled into Liberia and distributed into the universe market under the false premise that Liberia is their state of beginning. There are many upseting statistics that point to the truth of this affair. While the Government of Sierra Leone recorded exports of merely 8,500 carats in 1998, the HRD records imports of 770,000 carats. Annual Liberian diamond excavation capacity is between 100,000 and 150,000 carats, but the HRD records Liberian imports into Belgium of over 31 million carats between 1994 and 1998 & # 8211 ; an norm of over six million carats a twelvemonth. ( PACNET ) It doesn t do much sense that the existent sum of diamonds being produced in Liberia is far less than the sum of diamonds being exported.

In the mid 1930 s DeBeers was given sole excavation rights to the full state of Sierra Leone. By 1956, nevertheless, there were an estimated 75,000 illicit mineworkers in Kono District & # 8211 ; the bosom of the diamond country & # 8211 ; taking to smuggling on a huge graduated table, and doing a general dislocation of jurisprudence and order. ( PACNET ) In 1968 Siaka Stevens became the premier curate of Sierra Leone. He was non an advocator of illicit diamond trade what so of all time. From a high of over two million carats in 1970, legitimate diamond exports dropped to 595,000 carats in 1980 and so to merely 48,000 in 1988. ( PACNET ) In 1985 Stevens left office and Joseph Momoh came to power. Changeless wars have been traveling on in Sierra Leone for the past several decennaries. In 1991 the Revolutionary United Front ( RUF ) rebel war began and a military authorities replaced the president of Sierra Leone. Diamonds fueled the war and the changeless pandemonium gave several diamond-mining companies a opportunity to step foot into Sierra Leone.

It is hoped that these companies can set up stableness in the economic system of Sierra Leone. The ventures of new companies in Sierra Leone could supply occupations every bit good as stimulate legitimate trade with other states. The three largest of these concerns are Rex Diamond, AmCan Minerals, and DiamondWorks. In fact Rex Diamond has come to the adjutant of the authorities in times of demand. In 1998, Sierra Leone lost its lone combat chopper & # 8211 ; a serious job because the Soviet-built gunship had been the authorities & # 8217 ; s most effectual arm against the RUF. Zeev Morgenstern, Rex & # 8217 ; s Managing Director, and Serge Muller, the company & # 8217 ; s President, came to the authorities & # 8217 ; s assistance by doing an agreement to provide engines, parts and ammo worth US $ 3.8 million. ( PACNET )

Security jobs have prevented many excavation companies from acquiring much excavation done. The RUF has put many operations on clasp due to their frequent and unpredictable onslaughts. DiamondWorks solved this job with their connexions with several security houses. One in peculiar, Executive Outcomes ( EO ) , forced RUF out of many big and of import diamond-mining parts. With 200 imported soldiers, air support, and sophisticated communications equipment, EO pushed the RUF back from Freetown within a hebdomad, and within another month had cleared the major diamond countries of Kono as good. ( PACNET ) One ground that non many diamond-mining concerns have flourished in Sierra Leone is due to the fact that there is close to no security. In fact it is recommended by the authorities that foreign companies set uping themselves in Sierra Leone to supply their ain protection. The revival of internal warfare in 1999 brought another significant bead in GDP. The destiny of the economic system in 2000 depends on the mid-1999 peace agreement keeping and the Rebels reopening district under their control. ( CIA Fact Book )

There is much argument over what should be done, security wise, in Sierra Leone. This diamond rich state could potentially go highly comfortable if the proper policing was available. Organizations such as EO could be really helpful to the economic system of Sierra Leone if they were for good placed to keep Rebel groups back from the new diamond bring forthing concerns. Due to the fact that there is non a monopoly company in Sierra Leone, such as DeBeers, there is plentifulness of chance for smaller houses to set up themselves. In the absence of a governmental capacity for self-defense, and in the absence of effectual mechanisms for international protection, private security houses and soldier of fortunes may be seen by some as the manner of the hereafter. ( PACNET )

There are other stairss being taken in order to quiet the state of affairs in Sierra Leone. [ U.N. Security ] Council members made the comments in a statement following the first periodi

hundred closed-door reappraisal of a declaration adopted July 5 [ 2000 ] naming on all provinces to forbid the import of all unsmooth diamonds from Sierra Leone until the authorities comes up with a U.N.-approved certificate-of-origin government. ( CNN ) This program will hopefully forestall the RUF from doing net incomes off their illegally mined blood diamonds.

Another state that is involved in these diamond wars is Liberia. It is thought that the Liberian authorities has been involved in illegal activities covering with the trade of weaponries for diamonds. The president of Liberia, Charles Taylor, has been accused of back uping the RUF for some clip now. Taylor has been blamed for seeking to gain from the civil war in Sierra Leone. The United States has threatened to enforce countenances against Liberia for allegedly assisting to reassign weaponries across its boundary line to Sierra Leone & # 8217 ; s Revolutionary United Front ( RUF ) Rebels in exchange for diamonds. ( IRIN ) Of class Taylor denies these accusals.

Liberian President: Charles Taylor

Liberia is a state that has been socially and economically wounded by many old ages of civil war. The old ages of contending coupled with the flight of most concerns has disrupted formal economic activity. A still unsettled domestic security state of affairs has slowed the procedure of reconstructing the societal and economic construction of this war-worn state. ( CIA Fact Book ) The civil war broke out in the twelvemonth 1989 when The National Patriotic Front of Liberia ( NPFL ) , lead by Charles Taylor, invaded Liberia. This invasion was utterly barbarous due to the slayings of 100s of guiltless civilians by the NPFL. Many native Liberians fled their place state to avoid being slain. This civil war was hideous and highly tragic.

Over 10 per centum of the population, largely guiltless civilians were murdered ; about three-fourthss of the population became either refugees or displaced people ; out of the 60,000 Rebel combatants that were recruited by the warlords, approximately 60 per centum were & # 8220 ; kid soldiers & # 8221 ; , and most of them are now enduring from & # 8220 ; drug dependence, & # 8221 ; – and & # 8220 ; posttraumatic emphasis syndrome ; & # 8221 ; and adult females and misss were reported to hold suffered the most: they were raped and murdered with impunity by all the belligerent cabals. ( Tellewoyan )

The former authorities was done off with and the NPFL established the new authorities, the National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly ( NPRA ) . In 1996 an election was held and Charles Taylor came to be the president. As of now, his credibleness as a trusty leader is in great inquiry. Taylor claims that the civil war in Sierra Leone is non his job but that of the British. Taylor was quoted: The war in Sierra Leone is a war over diamonds, but non because Liberia wants diamonds. This war is go oning because the British want the diamonds. ( Africa.com )

All in all, Liberia is a state in shambles. Its economic system is in arrant pandemonium and there is non much being done to reconstruct it. [ Liberia s ] economic system had started its downward dip even before the war and the state of affairs was farther aggravated by the crisis illegal excavation of resources went on through out the war. All the warring cabals had participated in illegal excavation of resources. ( Alao ) On top of that U.S.-Liberian dealingss are non making so good either. Disputes over belongings rights have ignited statements between the two authoritiess. Last Wednesday, Clinton banned Taylor, senior members of his authorities and their households from sing the United States. In revenge, Taylor issued his ain instructions Friday denying entry visas to U.S. functionaries. ( Washington Post )

Liberia has become a major condemnable transshipment center for diamonds, guns, money

laundering, panic and other signifiers of organized offense. The astoundingly high

degrees of its diamond exports bear no relationship to its ain limited

resource base. By accepting Liberian exports as legitimate, the

international diamond industry actively colludes in offenses committed or

permitted by the Liberian authorities. ( PACNET )

The states described above all have highly unstable and volatile economic systems. Their jobs are rooted in differences over control of land and diamond mines. On the other manus, there are states in Africa that are non in the same state of affairs as Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. States such as Botswana and Namibia have really stable economic systems, which rely to a great extent upon diamond excavation activities. How is it possible that some states can fall into such convulsion, while others can be highly comfortable when diamonds are a cardinal factor in their economic system?

Botswana has the strongest economic system in Africa, and besides has the highest GDP/person in Africa. The dependance on diamond excavation activities on Botswana s economic system is great. ( MBendi ) Botswana lies instantly to the North of South Africa and is bordered by Namibia and Zimbabwe. Its exuberant landscape is highly wild and contains an amazingly big assortment of wildlife. The find of legion diamond militias in the late 1960 s brought upon great economic potency. By the beginning of the 1980s, diamonds had good overtaken beef as the state & # 8217 ; s taking foreign exchange earner and in 1981, diamond exports accounted for 40 % of entire exports and rose quickly thenceforth to make about 80 % of entire foreign exchange net incomes by 1989. ( Botswana Gov t Website )

Botswana exports to several states including many European states, South Africa, and the U.S. This beautiful African state is known to many as The Gem of Africa. Many diamond excavation oriented concerns have flourished in Botswana over the old ages. Debswana is a joint company of DeBeers and the Botswana authorities. This company has control over three really big and of import diamond mines in Botswana. These mines account for the largest bulk of Botswana s production of about 20 million carats per twelvemonth. Debswana employs about six thousand people and is Botswana s largest employer. ( MBendi ) One of Botswana s premiere diamond mines is located in Orapa. [ Orapa s ] giant kimberlite pipe was discovered by DeBeers geologists in the late 1960 s and the mine became operational in 1971 ( Joyce )

Namibia, once known as South West Africa, is another all right illustration of an economically stable state, which is to a great extent involved in diamond excavation. The economic system of Namibia is chiefly market based. Economic policies aim at prolonging economic growing, assortment in the productive base and the attractive force of foreign investors. ( MBendi ) Although over the past several old ages, Namibia has seen a diminution of excavation as a major factor in their economic system, it still plays an of import function.

Mining contributed 13 % to Namibia s GDP in 1999, of which diamond excavation activities represented 9 % . Mining merchandises produce up to 50 % of Namibia s one-year export net incomes. Although the excavation industry plays a critical function in Namibia s economic system, the excavation sector has experienced a diminution in growing over the past few old ages. This has chiefly been as a consequence of several excavation ventures shuting down due to decreasing ore militias and low trade good monetary values. Namibia s chief excavation merchandises include diamonds, U, gold, Zn, Cu and lead. ( MBendi )

In this state the province oversees all mineral excavation activities. Licenses are issued to give investors rights to mine in certain parts. There are several different types of licences, which can be obtained, including, Non Exclusive Prospecting Licenses, Reconnaissance Licenses, Exclusive Prospecting License, and Mineral Deposit Retention Licenses. Each licence grants different rights to mining investors and are merely valid for certain sums of clip. There are different excavation revenue enhancements and royalties placed on excavation companies as good. Tight authorities control and stiff excavation ordinances are obvious grounds why Namibia has been successful in its diamond excavation ventures. Diamonds are easy fring their importance in Namibia s economic system but as of now are still an vastly of import factor. Could tight ordinance of diamond excavation, in states in struggle such as Sierra Leone and Angola solve their jobs?

When one thinks of a true monopoly, an obvious name that comes to mind in the diamond industry is DeBeers. This company was established over one hundred and ten old ages ago, and since so has taken control over an huge part of the diamond excavation operations in Africa every bit good as other parts of the universe. [ DeBeers ] mines between them account for around half of the universe s end product of unsmooth treasure diamonds by value. ( MBendi ) Having so much power in the diamond industry gives DeBeers an advantage when it comes to the supply and demand for diamonds internationally. The company & # 8217 ; s grip on the diamond market has slipped a spot from near-total laterality at mid-century, but it has continued to maintain the monetary value of gem-quality diamonds high by being both aggressive and flexible. ( NY Times )

Diamonds have an intrinsic value attributed to woo and love. DeBeers can be thanked for this label. In 1938, De Beers hired a New York advertisement company to convert 1000000s of twosomes that the larger the diamond on an battle ring, the greater their love. In the 1960 & # 8217 ; s, a similar run in Japan created a diamond battle pealing tradition. ( NY Times ) Would diamonds hold the same image in people s heads through out the universe, if it weren T for DeBeers? Not likely. In fact diamonds are non the rareness most believe them to be. They are greatly abundant in the states they are mined from. The chief ground for the differences over diamonds is the demand for them internationally. Together with the unreal perceptual experience of rareness, what makes diamonds profitable to more than 2.5 million mineworkers, bargainers, cutters and jobbers around the universe and what energizes the $ 50-billion-a-year retail diamond jewellery industry is love affair. ( NY Times )

The relationship between the U.S. and DeBeers has non been making excessively good as of recently. DeBeers has violated several antimonopoly Torahs in the U.S. DeBeers has been accused of repairing industrial diamond monetary values in the planetary market. In fact many DeBeers executives will non come in the U.S. because of these differences. However, DeBeers continues to turn over in the money from states all over the universe including the United States.

There are presently allegations that DeBeers bought illegal diamonds from Angola s Rebel group UNITA. To keep universe monetary values, De Beers bought up a ample sum of what UNITA was selling although the company insists that it bought the diamonds on the unfastened market without any direct traffics with the Rebels, and that it stopped all purchasing when the trade stoppage was imposed in 1998. ( NY Times ) If DeBeers did in fact purchase blood diamonds from UNITA, they would be in direct misdemeanors of several trade stoppages and could potentially endure major effects. In response to these accusals DeBeers provinces that it will decline to buy diamonds that have wittingly originated in Angola, with an exclusion of one authorities controlled mine.

In March of 2000 DeBeers made a warrant that none of it s diamonds are purchased from conflicted parts. They claim that all of their diamonds come from mines they own in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, and other non-African locations. DeBeers has been commended by several organisations for its new claims. However, it will be seen if DeBeers can stand up to its claims. De Beers is portion of the job. In its attempts to command as much of the international diamond market as possible, it is no uncertainty buying diamonds from a broad assortment of doubtful beginnings, either knowingly or inadvertently. ( PACNET )

The Diamond High Council, or the Hoge Raad voor Diamant ( HRD ) , is located in Antwerp, Belgium. Eight out of 10 of the universe & # 8217 ; s unsmooth diamonds about 125 million carats a twelvemonth base on balls through Antwerp & # 8217 ; s Diamond Center. ( NY Times ) With so many diamonds go arounding through Antwerp, it is virtually impossible to state if a specific diamond may hold been mined in an country of struggle. Most diamond bargainers in Antwerp Don T rely upon difficult fact as to where their diamonds come from, but simply upon trust. Although a certification of beginning comes with most diamonds these are easy to hammer and retroflex.

The metropolis of Antwerp is a booming concern centre. There are 30 thousand people employed in diamond commercialism and industry and Antwerp has an 85 % portion in the planetary offer of unsmooth diamonds. ( DMA ) Of class there are no published statistics detailing the sum of illicitly mined and traded diamonds that come through. The lone protection against smuggled diamonds is a customs office. It is non really hard for a runner to avoid being caught by a imposts functionary when traversing boundary lines. Neither the Government of Belgium nor the HRD have estimations of the measure or beginning of bootleg diamonds. In add-on, there are few active policies aimed at commanding diamond smuggling. ( PACNET )

Due to the deficiency of patroling in Antwerp, the metropolis has become the planetary capital for bootleg diamonds. As celebrated before, the lone manner in which diamonds are traced is by certification of the last state from which the diamond was last exported. This state does non needfully hold to be its state of the diamond s beginning. A major job with the Belgian environment & # 8211 ; as it pertains to Sierra

Leone or any other diamond bring forthing state & # 8211 ; is the deficiency of involvement and

information on the true beginning of the diamonds come ining the state. ( PACNET ) In world, the state of beginning of the diamonds is non the top issue on the heads of diamond investors in Antwerp.

In decision, diamonds are a fuel for both economic prosperity and at the same clip thrust other economic systems into the land. States such as Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia have suffered vastly as a effect of being diamond rich parts, while states such as Botswana and Namibia have become highly stable economically. When it comes down to the basic inquiry of how diamonds affect an economic system, an reply is non easy found. Possibly the determining factor is the control of diamond trade. In states such as Namibia rigorous authorities control has keep smuggling and illegal excavation about wholly out of the image. States such as Sierra Leone, which have highly minimum policing of diamond traffic, smuggling and illegal excavation, have led barbarous civil wars.

A disturbing world is that many people worldwide are non cognizant of the struggles traveling on in these states. Such force and ferociousness should non travel unnoticed by the planetary community. If more people were cognizant of the state of affairs, action could be easy taken to work out the jobs. These wars have been traveling on excessively long, and excessively many lives have been sacrificed for these stones.

Monopoly companies such as DeBeers do non assist the battle one spot. In fact they aid civil difference by prosecuting in illegal activities as good. If De Beers were to take a greater involvement in states like Sierra Leone, and if it were to halt buying big sums of diamonds from states with a negligible production base, much could be done to stop the current high degrees of larceny and smuggling. ( PACNET ) Companies such as these overlook the struggle they frequently cause, merely so they can do that excess money. The economic hereafter looks rather inexorable for Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. If they are to change over to economically sound states it will take clip and action. Rigorous policing must be implemented and rebel groups must be taken out of the image. When one thinks about the value of a diamond, it does non look worth the sum of lives that have been sacrificed for it.

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