Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Introduction

Influenza is classified by the World Health Organisation as ‘a virus that attacks chiefly the upper respiratory tract’1 with symptoms including febrility, cough, concern, musculus hurting and sore pharynx. The influenza virus is an RNA virus which is subdivided into the genera Influenza A, B and C. Of the three, Influenza A is the most deadly and produces the most terrible unwellness.

Structure and Properties

The three genera of Influenza portion a similar construction, with a diameter of 80-120nm in a approximately spherical form 2. The virion consists of an outer envelope incorporating two chief types of glycoproteins, covering a cardinal nucleus incorporating the RNA and other viral proteins 3. Unusually, the genome consists of more than one strand of RNA, alternatively being comprised of seven or eight strands which each codification for either one or two cistrons. The genome of Influenza A codifications for 11 different proteins: haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, M1, M2, NS1, NS2, PA, PB1, PB1-F2 and PB2 4. Influenza A is able to be subclassified based on the antibody responses to haemagglutinin ( HA ) and neuraminidase ( NA ) in the format HxNy 5. Presently, there are 16 different HA and 9 different NA subtypes that are known, but merely H1, 2 and 3 and N1 and 2 are normally found in worlds 6.

The function of HA is to adhere to the surface of the mark cell, ensuing in the engulfing of the virus in an endosome. The cell so attempts to digest the contents of the endosome, nevertheless, one time the pH has dropped to approximately 6.0 the construction of HA becomes unstable, doing it to partly unfold. This exposes a extremely hydrophobic part known as the “fusion peptide” which inserts into the intracellular membrane. The HA molecule so refolds into a more stable construction under low pH conditions ensuing in the virus membrane and that of the lysosome to be pulled together. The new agreement of HA so causes the membranes to fuseallowing the viral RNA into the cell, originating infection 7.

Neuraminidase is responsible for taking the terminal sialic acid residues from the host cell and offspring viruses to forestall adhering to the surface of the host cell 8. This allows the virions to distribute out and infect other cells without being wasted on pre-infected cells.

Reproduction

After the virus has entered the host cell by the action of HA, the viral nucleoplasmid is released, holding been signaled to make so by the alteration in construction of HA, and travels to the host nucleus 9.

Once within the karyon, the negative sense viral RNA ( vRNA ) is transcribed into positive sense vRNA by RNA polymerase 10. The vRNA is so either exported to the cytol to be translated or remains in the karyon. The freshly formed viral proteins are so either secreted via the Golgi setup onto the cell surface, or transported back to the karyon for the intent of building new genomic atoms 10.

During this procedure, different viral proteins which have been released perform functions such as suppressing host messenger RNA interlingual rendition within the cell and interrupting down the host messenger RNA to let go of bases to be used in vRNA synthesis 11.

Due to the deficiency of RNA proofreading enzymes within the virion, the RNA polymerase makes an mistake in written text about every 10,000 bases, which is besides approximately the length of the Influenza vRNA 12. The consequence of this is that about all of the new virions will be mutated from the parent vRNA. This is referred to as antigenic displacement which is a gradual alteration of the surface antigens presented by the virus.

Influenza is besides able to mutate by a method known as Antigenic Shift. This occurs when more than one type of influenza infects one cell. Due to the cleavage of the vRNA, if this occurs, the cistrons of each strain of the virus can be swapped. This can happen with a mix of human and non-human grippe or entirely non-human grippe which, when combined, mutates to hold the ability to infect worlds 13. This signifier of mutant poses the greatest public wellness hazard as it can make fresh strains of the virus to which the populace has no unsusceptibility, doing epidemics and pandemics.

It should be noted that although both influenza A and B can mutate by antigenic impetus, merely influenza A is able to mutate by antigenic displacement 14.

Transmission

There are three chief methods of transmittal for the Influenza Virus:

  • Direct Transmission – This is where an septic individual coughs or sneezes straight into the eyes nose or oral cavity or another individual.
  • Airborne Transmission – When a individual inhales the aerosolized droplets produced by the coughing or sneeze of an septic person
  • Contact Transmission – Where the virus is picked up from another surface and transferred to the clean individual by manus to oral cavity, oculus or nose contact.

In airborne transmittal, even though the droplets are typically 0.5 to 5µm, inspiration of merely one droplet may be adequate to do infection. It is possible for one sneezing to incorporate 10s of 1000s of droplets, nevertheless most of these will settle on surfaces as they are excessively big to be suspended in the air 15.

Once the droplets have settled on a surface, the survival clip of the virus varies dramatically depending on the surface, changing from 5 proceedingss on tegument and 15 proceedingss on dry tissue paper16 to up to 17 yearss on banknote17. The deductions of this are that it becomes really easy for transmittal to happen, peculiarly in urban environments.

Symptoms and Pathophysiology

Influenza is able cause a scope of symptoms which can go forth people bedridden for yearss. The most common symptoms of influenza include febrility, icinesss, coughing, myodynia, weariness and rhinal congestion.

One of the ways it is thought that influenza causes these symptoms is through its suppression of adrenocorticotropic endocrine ( ACTH ) which leads to lowered degrees of hydrocortisone 18, this means that the immune response is stronger as hydrocortisone can weaken the activity of the immune system through actions such as forestalling proliferation of T-cells. Most of the symptoms listed above are caused by huge sums of cytokines and chemokines such as interferon and TNF produced by the septic cells 19. The coughing and rhinal congestion caused in grippe can besides be partly attributed to the cell harm caused by the infection, as opposed to being entirely caused by the inflammatory response 20 22. The monolithic immune response can besides potentially lead to hypercytokinemia or cytokine storm.

This is when the organic structure loses control of the production of cytokines in an immune response, usually in reaction to a new extremely infective infection, ensuing in a cascade of T-cells and macrophages being recruited to the site of infection potentially ensuing in multiorgan failure 21. It is believed that it may be hypercytokinemia that is responsible for the high mortality in both H5N1 bird grippe instances 23 and in the 1918 Spanish grippe pandemic 24. Others nevertheless have suggested that the big volume of cytokines is due to the monolithic viral reproduction and is being controlled suitably as opposed to the loss of control in cytokine storm 25.

Treatment and Inoculation

During the winter in temperate country of the universe, degrees of grippe reach epidemic degrees. This consequences in a big loss to the economic system of affected states, with surveies demoing that the one-year seasonal Influenza epidemic costs the USA over $ 80 billion 26. Combined with the possible cost to human life this highlights the demand for effectual interventions for grippe.

The chief focal point of intervention presently is neuraminidase inhibitors, these work by forestalling the mature virions from detaching from the septic host cell and distributing throughout the organic structure. As NA is found on both influenza A and B, neuraminidase inhibitors are effectual against both genera. Drugs within this group include Oseltamivir ( Tamiflu ) and Zanamivir ( Relenza ) .

Oseltamivir is a prodrug which undergoes hydrolysis in the liver to go the activated free carboxylate which acts as a competitory inhibitor to the reaction between NA and sialic acid. Currently Oseltamivir is going less effectual as the circulating strains of seasonal influenza become immune to it, as shown in a recent WHO survey of the 2008-2009 seasonal grippe strains of H1N1 found that 95 % of the tried strains were immune to the drug 27. Similar surveies by the CDC found an even higher 99.6 % rate of opposition 28. Resistance in the 2009 pandemic strain of H1N1 is presently shown to be 1.3 % 30.In instances of non-resistant grippe the decrease in clip to symptom relief is 0.5 to 1 twenty-four hours 29.

Zanamivir, unlike Oseltamivir, is non a prodrug and is alternatively taken in the active signifier. The method of suppression is the same as that of Oseltamivir in that it binds competitively to the active sit of NA. Surveies by the CDC have shown that over the same 2008-2009 period as above, the opposition to Zanamivir was 0 % 28. The opposition in the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain is besides 0 % 30. Zanamivir is besides shown to be able to cut down the clip to symptom relief by 1.5 yearss.

A farther group of anti-influenza drugs are M2 inhibitors. These map by forestalling protons come ining the virus from the acidic lysosomal environment. This stops the dissociation of proteins critical in the un-coating of the virion ensuing in the inability to let go of the contents into the cytol. M2 inhibitors are merely effectual against grippe A, non B. Many strains of grippes have now developed opposition to M2 inhibitors such as Adamantane, nevertheless, for the 2008-2009 period seasonal grippe had merely 0.5 % opposition, compared to the 100 % oppositions for H3N2 and the fresh H1N1 responsible for the 2009 pandemic 28.

Due to the of all time changing nature of Influenza ‘s antigenic representation, it is necessary to supply a new vaccinum every grippe season. The grippe season occurs during the colder portion of the twelvemonth so varies between the northern and southern hemisphere. The effect of this is that 2 versions of the seasonal grippe vaccinum must be produced for each twelvemonth, one for the Northern hemisphere grippe season and one for the Southern hemisphere grippe season.

The vaccinum consists of three different vaccinums to protect against the most common strains in that twelvemonth of grippe A ( H1N1 ) , influenza A ( H3N2 ) and Influenza B. The vaccinum strains are identified by population trying carried out in research labs across the universe such as the CDC in America and the National Institute for Medical Research in the UK. Due to the drawn-out procedure of vaccinum production, the sampling is used to seek and foretell which strains will be prevailing in six months clip when the vaccinum is completed. This can potentially ensue in the most prevailing strain non being to the full immunised against, nevertheless it is likely that the vaccinum will still supply partial protection.

The procedure of turning the vaccinum begins with first accommodating the wild virus for use in fabricating a vaccinum. To cut down the virulency and assistance growing in the allantois of the biddies ‘ eggs, where the vaccinum strains are grown, the wild virus is assorted with a strain of research lab Influenza A. After being allowed to turn together a loanblend of the two strains is formed which contains the less harmful internal constructions found in the research lab strain but which presents with the antigens of the wild strain. This procedure takes approximately three hebdomads 31.

After proving to guarantee that the antigens presented on the intercrossed virus fit the wild virus, the vaccinum makers test the growing rate of the virus in the eggs under changing conditions to happen the optimum conditions, taking another three hebdomads. The chief vaccinum fabrication so starts by infixing the virus into 9-12 twenty-four hours old fertilised biddies ‘ eggs and incubated at the antecedently determined optimum conditions for 2 to 3 days.The allantois of the egg, which now contains 1000000s of virions, is extracted. The virus is so killed by usage of chemicals and the Antigens purified. Each batch of antigen takes approximately two hebdomads to bring forth, with a new batch being started every few yearss 31. The vaccinum so undergoes clinical tests to guarantee it is safe to utilize which requires at least 4 hebdomads more before being approved by the regulative authorization and set on sale.

This type of vaccinum is referred to as a ‘dead whole being ‘ vaccinum. The benefits of this type of vaccinum are that it can be even be administered to immunocompromised people as there is no opportunity of a reversion of virulency occurring, nevertheless it does ensue in a weaker degree of unsusceptibility.

A 2nd type of vaccinum has late started to be used known as FluMist or Live attenuated influenza vaccinum. This works by presenting an aerosolized spray of a diminished version of the grippe virus intranasally. The advantage of this method is that the degree of unsusceptibility induced is high, with a individual dosage normally being adequate to supply long term unsusceptibility. However, there is a hazard that the diminished virus may return to its more deadly signifier significance it is non suited for immunocompromised patients.

Pandemic Influenza

Of the two genera of grippe that normally do unwellness in worlds ( A and B ) merely influenza A has the possible to do pandemics. The chief ground for this is how influenza A is able to mutate so quickly by antigenic displacement but besides the potency for fresh strains to look via antigenic impetus in antecedently carnal beginning strains.

The WHO pandemic stages outline a pandemic as follows ; ‘the same identified virus has caused sustained community degree eruptions in two or more states in one WHO part and at least one other state in another WHO region’32.

In the last 100 old ages at that place have been four noteworthy grippe pandemics:

  • Spanish Flu – 1918-20
  • Asiatic Flu – 1957-58
  • Hong Kong Flu – 1968-69
  • Swine Flu – 2009-present

The most terrible of these pandemics was the Spanish grippe which is estimated to hold killed between 50 and 100 million people world-wide 33. Reports from the clip indicate that on top of the usual symptoms of grippe there was besides bleeding of mucose membranes 33. The chief cause of decease was bacterial pneumonia due to the harm caused by the grippe virus to the ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory system leting bacteriums to migrate to the lungs 34.

  1. World Health Organisation. Influenza. 2004 [ updated 2010 Jan 15 ; cited 2010 Jan 15 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/2003/fs211/en/ .
  2. ICTVdB Management ( 2006 ) . 00.046. Orthomyxoviridae. In: ICTVdB – The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Buchen-Osmond, C. ( Ed ) , Columbia University, New York, USA
  3. Lamb, R A. Choppin, P W. The cistron construction and reproduction of influenza virus. Annu Rev Biochem. 52:467-506, 1983.
  4. Ghedin E. Sengamalay NA. Shumway M. Zaborsky J. Feldblyum T. Subbu V. et al. Large-scale sequencing of human grippe reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome development. Nature. 437 ( 7062 ) :1162-6, 2005 Oct 20.
  5. Hilleman, Maurice R. Realities and mystery of human viral grippe: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control. Vaccine. 20 ( 25-26 ) :3068-87, 2002 Aug 19.
  6. Lynch JP 3rd. Walsh EE. Influenza: evolving schemes in intervention and bar. Seminars in Respiratory & A ; Critical Care Medicine. 28 ( 2 ) :144-58, 2007 Apr.
  7. RCSB Protein Data Bank. Molecule of the Month – Hemagglutinin. 2006 [ updated 2010 Jan 16 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rcsb.org/pdb/static.do? p=education_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/pdb76_2.html
  8. RCSB Protein Data Bank. Molecule of the Month – Influenza Neuraminidase. 2009 [ updated 2010 Jan 16 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rcsb.org/pdb/static.do? p=education_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/pdb76_2.html
  9. Stanford University. Influenza Replication. 1999 [ updated 2010 Jan 16 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.stanford.edu/group/virus/1999/rahul23/replication.html
  10. Influenza Report. Virology of Human Influenza. 1999 [ updated 2009 Nov 12 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.influenzareport.com/ir/virol.htm
  11. Kash JC. Goodman AG. Korth MJ. Katze MG. Hijacking of the host-cell response and translational control during influenza virus infection. Virus Res. 119 ( 1 ) :111-20, 2006 Jul.
  12. Drake JW. Ratess of self-generated mutant among RNA viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 90 ( 9 ) :4171-5, 1993 May 1.
  13. IFPMA. Antigenic Shift. [ updated 2009 May 20 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ifpma.org/Influenza/index.aspx? 21
  14. CDC. Seasonal Influenza – How the Flu Virus Can Change. 2009 [ updated 2009 Aug 26 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/change.htm
  15. Weber TP. Stilianakis NI. Inactivation of grippe A viruses in the environment and manners of transmittal: a critical reappraisal. J Infect. 57 ( 5 ) :361-73, 2008 Nov.
  16. Bean B. Moore BM. Sterner B. Peterson LR. Gerding DN. Balfour HH Jr. Survival of grippe viruses on environmental surfaces. J Infect Dis. 146 ( 1 ) :47-51, 1982 Jul.
  17. Thomas Y. Vogel G. Wunderli W. Suter P. Witschi M. Koch D. et al. Survival of influenza virus on bills. Appl Environ Microbiol. 74 ( 10 ) :3002-7, 2008 May.
  18. Jefferies WM. Turner JC. Lobo M. Gwaltney JM Jr. Low plasma degrees of adrenocorticotropic endocrine in patients with acute grippe. Clin Infect Dis. 26 ( 3 ) :708-10, 1998 Mar.
  19. Eccles R. Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and grippe. Lancet Infect Dis. 5 ( 11 ) :718-25, 2005 Nov.
  20. Winther B. Gwaltney JM Jr. Mygind N. Hendley JO. Viral-induced coryza. Am J Rhinol. 12 ( 1 ) :17-20, 1998 Jan-Feb.
  21. St Clair EW. The composure after the cytokine storm: lessons from the TGN1412 test. J Clin Invest. 118 ( 4 ) :1344-7, 2008 Apr.
  22. Trias EL. Hassantoufighi A. Prince GA. Eichelberger MC. Comparison of air passage measurings during influenza-induced tachypnea in baby and grownup cotton rats. BMC polm. med.. 9:28, 2009.
  23. Cheung CY. Poon LL. Lau AS. Luk W. Lau YL. Shortridge KF. et Al. Initiation of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by grippe A ( H5N1 ) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual badness of human disease? . Lancet. 360 ( 9348 ) :1831-7, 2002 Dec 7.
  24. Kobasa D. Jones SM. Shinya K. Kash JC. Copps J. Ebihara H. Hatta Y. Kim JH. et Al. Aberrant innate immune response in deadly infection of macaques with the 1918 grippe virus. Nature. 445 ( 7125 ) :319-23, 2007 Jan 18.
  25. Beigel J. Bray M. Current and future antiviral therapy of terrible seasonal and avian grippe. Antiviral Res. 78 ( 1 ) :91-102, 2008 Apr.
  26. Molinari NA. Ortega-Sanchez IR. Messonnier ML. Thompson WW. Wortley PM. Weintraub E. Bridges CB. The one-year impact of seasonal grippe in the United states: measuring disease load and costs. Vaccine. 25 ( 27 ) :5086-96, 2007 Jun 28.
  27. WHO. Influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus opposition to oseltamivir – 2008/2009 grippe season, northern hemisphere. 2009 [ updated 2009 Mar 21 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/H1N1webupdate20090318 % 20ed_ns.pdf
  28. CDC. 2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 30 stoping August 1, 2009. 2009 [ updated 2009 August 7 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/weeklyarchives2008-2009/weekly30.htm
  29. Burch J. Corbett M. Stock C. Nicholson K. Elliot AJ. Duffy S. et Al. Prescription of anti-influenza drugs for healthy grownups: a systematic reappraisal and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 9 ( 9 ) :537-45, 2009 Sep.
  30. CDC. 2009-2010 Influenza Season Week 1 stoping January 9, 2010. 2010 [ updated 2010 Jan 15 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/
  31. WHO. Pandemic influenza vaccinum fabrication procedure and timeline. 2009 [ updated 2009 Aug 06 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/notes/h1n1_vaccine_20090806/en/index.html
  32. WHO. WHO Pandemic Phase Descriptions and Main Actions by Phase. 2009 [ updated 2009 Aug 31 ; cited 2010 Jan 16 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/GIPA3AideMemoire.pdf
  33. Knobler SL, Mack A, Mahmoud A, Lemon SM, editors. The Menace of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary. Washington DC: National Academies Press ; 2005.
  34. Morens DM. Taubenberger JK. Fauci AS. Predominant function of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of decease in pandemic grippe: deductions for pandemic grippe readiness. J Infect Dis. 198 ( 7 ) :962-70, 2008 Oct 1.

Post Author: admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *